Characterization and Rapid Gene-Mapping of Leaf Lesion Mimic Phenotype of spl-1 Mutant in Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.).Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 03; 20(9)IJ
In plants, lesion mimic mutants (LMMs) reveal spontaneous disease-like lesions in the absence of pathogen that constitutes powerful genetic material to unravel genes underlying programmed cell death (PCD), particularly the hypersensitive response (HR). However, only a few LMMs are reported in soybean, and no related gene has been cloned until now. In the present study, we isolated a new LMM named spotted leaf-1 (spl-1) from NN1138-2 cultivar through ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) treatment. The present study revealed that lesion formation might result from PCD and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced but antioxidant activities, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, were detected higher in spl-1 than in the wild-type. According to segregation analysis of mutant phenotype in two genetic populations, viz., W82×spl-1 and PI378692×spl-1, the spotted leaf phenotype of spl-1 is controlled by a single recessive gene named lm1. The lm1 locus governing mutant phenotype of spl-1 was first identified in 3.15 Mb genomic region on chromosome 04 through MutMap analysis, which was further verified and fine mapped by simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based genetic mapping. Genetic linkage analysis narrowed the genomic region (lm1 locus) for mutant phenotype to a physical distance of ~76.23 kb. By searching against the Phytozome database, eight annotated candidate genes were found within the lm1 region. qRT-PCR expression analysis revealed that, among these eight genes, only Glyma.04g242300 showed highly significant expression levels in wild-type relative to the spl-1 mutant. However, sequencing data of the CDS region showed no nucleotide difference between spl-1 and its wild type within the coding regions of these genes but might be in the non-coding regions such as 5' or 3' UTR. Hence, the data of the present study are in favor of Glyma.04g242300 being the possible candidate genes regulating the mutant phenotype of spl-1. However, further validation is needed to prove this function of the gene as well as its role in PCD, which in turn would be helpful to understand the mechanism and pathways involved in HR disease resistance of soybean.