Important food sources of fructose-containing sugars and incident gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.BMJ Open. 2019 05 05; 9(5):e024171.BO
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are associated with hyperuricaemia and gout. Whether other important food sources of fructose-containing sugars share this association is unclear.
To assess the relation of important food sources of fructose-containing sugars with incident gout and hyperuricaemia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
We searched MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library (through 13 September 2017). We included prospective cohort studies that investigated the relationship between food sources of sugar and incident gout or hyperuricaemia. Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed the risk of bias. We pooled natural-log transformed risk ratios (RRs) using the generic inverse variance method with random effects model and expressed as RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The overall certainty of the evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system.
We identified three studies (1 54 289 participants, 1761 cases of gout), comparing the highest with the lowest level of exposure for SSBs, fruit juices and fruits. No reports were found reporting incident hyperuricaemia. Fruit juice and SSB intake showed an adverse association (fruit juice: RR=1.77, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.61; SSB: RR=2.08, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.08), when comparing the highest to lowest intake of the most adjusted models. There was no significant association between fruit intake and gout (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.14). The strongest evidence was for the adverse association with SSB intake (moderate certainty), and the weakest evidence was for the adverse association with fruit juice intake (very low certainty) and lack of association with fruit intake (very low certainty).
There is an adverse association of SSB and fruit juice intake with incident gout, which does not appear to extend to fruit intake. Further research is needed to improve our estimates.
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