Histone demethylase KDM5A is transactivated by the transcription factor C/EBPβ and promotes preadipocyte differentiation by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling.J Biol Chem. 2019 06 14; 294(24):9642-9654.JB
β-Catenin signaling is triggered by WNT proteins and is an important pathway that negatively regulates adipogenesis. However, the mechanisms controlling the expression of WNT proteins during adipogenesis remain incompletely understood. Lysine demethylase 5A (KDM5A) is a histone demethylase that removes trimethyl (me3) marks from lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4) and serves as a general transcriptional corepressor. Here, using the murine 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation model and an array of biochemical approaches, including ChIP, immunoprecipitation, RT-qPCR, and immunoblotting assays, we show that Kdm5a is a target gene of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ), an important early transcription factor required for adipogenesis. We found that C/EBPβ binds to the Kdm5a gene promoter and transactivates its expression. We also found that siRNA-mediated KDM5A down-regulation inhibits 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. The KDM5A knockdown significantly up-regulates the negative regulator of adipogenesis Wnt6, having increased levels of the H3K4me3 mark on its promoter. We further observed that WNT6 knockdown significantly rescues adipogenesis inhibited by the KDM5A knockdown. Moreover, we noted that C/EBPβ negatively regulates Wnt6 expression by binding to the Wnt6 gene promoter and repressing Wnt6 transcription. Further experiments indicated that KDM5A interacts with C/EBPβ and that their interaction cooperatively inhibits Wnt6 transcription. Of note, C/EBPβ knockdown impaired the recruitment of KDM5A to the Wnt6 promoter, which had higher H3K4me3 levels. Our results suggest a mechanism involving C/EBPβ and KDM5A activities that down-regulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway during 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation.