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Evaluation of R- (-) and S- (+) Clenbuterol enantiomers during a doping cycle or continuous ingestion of contaminated meat using chiral liquid chromatography by LC-TQ-MS.
Drug Test Anal. 2019 Aug; 11(8):1238-1247.DT

Abstract

Clenbuterol is known to improve competition resistance and muscular growth in athletes. Although it is an illegal drug, its use by farmers is widely spread to induce growth of their cattle. Thus, when clenbuterol is found in the urine of an athlete, there is doubt whether it was consumed with doping purposes or if it is due to the consumption of meat from a clenbuterol-fed animal. Previous studies suggest that enantiomeric relationship of clenbuterol may be different according to the intake source. However, the enantiomeric relationship throughout a doping cycle or a continuous intake of contaminated meat has not yet been explored. In this first approximation, our aim was the development and validation of a sensitive and rapid method for the determination of S- (+) and R- (─) clenbuterol enantiomers to be used in a controlled study in rats fed for one week with contaminated meat or simulating a doping cycle. Enantiomers were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer (LC-TQ-MS) and were separated on an AGP Chiralpak column. The method was fully validated following the VICH (Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines) and was linear in the range of 12.5-800 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.98 for each enantiomer, and with a limit of quantitation and detection (LOQ and LOD) of 12.5 pg/mL and 6.5 pg/mL, respectively, for both enantiomers. The application of this method pointed out the shift of the enantiomeric relationship in urine from rats during the first five days of the doping cycle compared to those fed with contaminated meat. This finding can be of substantial importance in further doping studies.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Development Tests, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Faculty of Higher Education Cuautitlán, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico state.Institute of Applied Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, San Pablo CEU University, Madrid, Spain.Laboratory of Cellular Toxicology, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico state.Multidisciplinary Research Unit, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico State, Mexico.Department of Chemical Sciences, Section of Organic Chemistry, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cuautitlán Izcalli, State of Mexico, Mexico.Genomic Medicine and Environmental Toxicology Research, Biomedical Institute, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University Exterior Circuit, Mexico City, Mexico.Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Development Tests, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Faculty of Higher Education Cuautitlán, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Cuautitlán Izcalli, Mexico state.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31069953

Citation

Dolores, Hernández Mariana, et al. "Evaluation of R- (-) and S- (+) Clenbuterol Enantiomers During a Doping Cycle or Continuous Ingestion of Contaminated Meat Using Chiral Liquid Chromatography By LC-TQ-MS." Drug Testing and Analysis, vol. 11, no. 8, 2019, pp. 1238-1247.
Dolores HM, Villaseñor A, Piña OS, et al. Evaluation of R- (-) and S- (+) Clenbuterol enantiomers during a doping cycle or continuous ingestion of contaminated meat using chiral liquid chromatography by LC-TQ-MS. Drug Test Anal. 2019;11(8):1238-1247.
Dolores, H. M., Villaseñor, A., Piña, O. S., Mercado Márquez, C., Bejarano, B. V., Bonaparte, M. E. G., & López-Arellano, R. (2019). Evaluation of R- (-) and S- (+) Clenbuterol enantiomers during a doping cycle or continuous ingestion of contaminated meat using chiral liquid chromatography by LC-TQ-MS. Drug Testing and Analysis, 11(8), 1238-1247. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2612
Dolores HM, et al. Evaluation of R- (-) and S- (+) Clenbuterol Enantiomers During a Doping Cycle or Continuous Ingestion of Contaminated Meat Using Chiral Liquid Chromatography By LC-TQ-MS. Drug Test Anal. 2019;11(8):1238-1247. PubMed PMID: 31069953.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of R- (-) and S- (+) Clenbuterol enantiomers during a doping cycle or continuous ingestion of contaminated meat using chiral liquid chromatography by LC-TQ-MS. AU - Dolores,Hernández Mariana, AU - Villaseñor,Alma, AU - Piña,Olmos Sofia, AU - Mercado Márquez,Crisóforo, AU - Bejarano,Benjamín Velasco, AU - Bonaparte,María Eugenia Gonsebatt, AU - López-Arellano,Raquel, Y1 - 2019/06/02/ PY - 2019/02/16/received PY - 2019/04/12/revised PY - 2019/05/03/accepted PY - 2019/5/10/pubmed PY - 2020/1/14/medline PY - 2019/5/10/entrez KW - Clenbuterol KW - LC-MS/MS KW - SRM KW - doping KW - enantiomers SP - 1238 EP - 1247 JF - Drug testing and analysis JO - Drug Test Anal VL - 11 IS - 8 N2 - Clenbuterol is known to improve competition resistance and muscular growth in athletes. Although it is an illegal drug, its use by farmers is widely spread to induce growth of their cattle. Thus, when clenbuterol is found in the urine of an athlete, there is doubt whether it was consumed with doping purposes or if it is due to the consumption of meat from a clenbuterol-fed animal. Previous studies suggest that enantiomeric relationship of clenbuterol may be different according to the intake source. However, the enantiomeric relationship throughout a doping cycle or a continuous intake of contaminated meat has not yet been explored. In this first approximation, our aim was the development and validation of a sensitive and rapid method for the determination of S- (+) and R- (─) clenbuterol enantiomers to be used in a controlled study in rats fed for one week with contaminated meat or simulating a doping cycle. Enantiomers were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer (LC-TQ-MS) and were separated on an AGP Chiralpak column. The method was fully validated following the VICH (Veterinary International Conference on Harmonization guidelines) and was linear in the range of 12.5-800 pg/mL with a correlation coefficient of ≥0.98 for each enantiomer, and with a limit of quantitation and detection (LOQ and LOD) of 12.5 pg/mL and 6.5 pg/mL, respectively, for both enantiomers. The application of this method pointed out the shift of the enantiomeric relationship in urine from rats during the first five days of the doping cycle compared to those fed with contaminated meat. This finding can be of substantial importance in further doping studies. SN - 1942-7611 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31069953/Evaluation_of_R______and_S___+__Clenbuterol_enantiomers_during_a_doping_cycle_or_continuous_ingestion_of_contaminated_meat_using_chiral_liquid_chromatography_by_LC_TQ_MS_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2612 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -