Serotype and molecular diversity of nasopharyngeal Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from children before and after vaccination with the ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in Ethiopia.BMC Infect Dis 2019; 19(1):409BI
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen, and nasopharyngeal colonization is the first step for transmission and pathogenesis of pneumococcal diseases. Ethiopia introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) in October 2011. Here we studied nasopharyngeal carriage rates of pneumococci in children and analyzed the serotype and genetic diversity of pneumococcal isolates before first dose and after completion of the vaccine.
A longitudinal study was conducted from February 2013 to November 2016. Totally 789 infants were enrolled at the age of 6 weeks before first dose of PCV10 vaccination, 206 were re-sampled at the age of 9 months, and 201 at 2 years of age after the final dose of PCV10 at the age of 14 weeks. One hundred sixteen children were followed during all the three sampling periods. A total of 422 nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped using gel diffusion and the Quellung reaction, 325 were typed with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and 12 were selected for multi locus sequence typing (MLST).
Pneumococcal carriage rates at the age of 6 weeks, 9 months and 2 years of age were 26.6% (210/789), 56.8% (117/206) and 48.3% (97/201), respectively. Out of 116 children none of them carried the same strain during the three period and the carriage rate at the age of 6 weeks, 9 months and 2 years were 32.7% (38/116), 59.% (69/116) and 49.1% (57/116) respectively. Totally 59 pneumococcal serotypes were identified among 422 isolates. Serotype 6A (5.0%) dominated followed by 34 (4.5%), 10A (4.0%), 11A (4.0%), 19F (3.8%), 15B (3.8%), 23F (3.6%), and 15A (3.6%). The proportion of non-PCV10 serotypes among the isolates recovered at 6 weeks, 9 months and 2 years was 79.4, 88.9 and 89.7% respectively. Molecular typing of 325 isolates collected at 6 weeks and 9 months of age showed a high genetic diversity.
This study highlights the presence of very diverse serotypes in Ethiopia where non-vaccine serotypes were predominant. Completion of the PCV10 schedule was associated with an approximately 50% reduction of vaccine-type carriage and increase of non-vaccine types. PCV13 would potentially reduce vaccine-type carriage by further 10%.