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Classification for invasion depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a deep neural network compared with experienced endoscopists.
Gastrointest Endosc 2019; 90(3):407-414GE

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Cancer invasion depth is a critical factor affecting the choice of treatment in patients with superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the diagnosis of invasion depth is currently subjective and liable to interobserver variability.

METHODS

We developed a deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) system based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector architecture for the assessment of superficial esophageal SCC. We obtained endoscopic images from patients with superficial esophageal SCC at our facility between December 2005 and December 2016.

RESULTS

After excluding poor-quality images, 8660 non-magnified endoscopic (non-ME) and 5678 ME images from 804 superficial esophageal SCCs with pathologic proof of cancer invasion depth were used as the training dataset, and 405 non-ME images and 509 ME images from 155 patients were selected for the validation set. Our system showed a sensitivity of 90.1%, specificity of 95.8%, positive predictive value of 99.2%, negative predictive value of 63.9%, and an accuracy of 91.0% for differentiating pathologic mucosal and submucosal microinvasive (SM1) cancers from submucosal deep invasive (SM2/3) cancers. Cancer invasion depth was diagnosed by 16 experienced endoscopists using the same validation set, with an overall sensitivity of 89.8%, specificity of 88.3%, positive predictive value of 97.9%, negative predictive value of 65.5%, and an accuracy of 89.6%.

CONCLUSIONS

This newly developed AI system showed favorable performance for diagnosing invasion depth in patients with superficial esophageal SCC, with comparable performance to experienced endoscopists.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.AI Medical Service Inc., Tokyo, Japan.Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Osaka International Cancer Institute, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Rosai Hospital, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Itami City Hospital, Hyogo, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka Police Hospital, Osaka, Japan.Department of Gastroenterology, Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka, Japan.AI Medical Service Inc., Tokyo, Japan; Tada Tomohiro Institute of Gastroenterology and Proctology, Saitama, Japan; Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31077698

Citation

Nakagawa, Kentaro, et al. "Classification for Invasion Depth of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using a Deep Neural Network Compared With Experienced Endoscopists." Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 90, no. 3, 2019, pp. 407-414.
Nakagawa K, Ishihara R, Aoyama K, et al. Classification for invasion depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a deep neural network compared with experienced endoscopists. Gastrointest Endosc. 2019;90(3):407-414.
Nakagawa, K., Ishihara, R., Aoyama, K., Ohmori, M., Nakahira, H., Matsuura, N., ... Tada, T. (2019). Classification for invasion depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a deep neural network compared with experienced endoscopists. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 90(3), pp. 407-414. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2019.04.245.
Nakagawa K, et al. Classification for Invasion Depth of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using a Deep Neural Network Compared With Experienced Endoscopists. Gastrointest Endosc. 2019;90(3):407-414. PubMed PMID: 31077698.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Classification for invasion depth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using a deep neural network compared with experienced endoscopists. AU - Nakagawa,Kentaro, AU - Ishihara,Ryu, AU - Aoyama,Kazuharu, AU - Ohmori,Masayasu, AU - Nakahira,Hiroko, AU - Matsuura,Noriko, AU - Shichijo,Satoki, AU - Nishida,Tsutomu, AU - Yamada,Takuya, AU - Yamaguchi,Shinjiro, AU - Ogiyama,Hideharu, AU - Egawa,Satoshi, AU - Kishida,Osamu, AU - Tada,Tomohiro, Y1 - 2019/05/08/ PY - 2019/03/01/received PY - 2019/04/26/accepted PY - 2019/5/12/pubmed PY - 2019/5/12/medline PY - 2019/5/12/entrez SP - 407 EP - 414 JF - Gastrointestinal endoscopy JO - Gastrointest. Endosc. VL - 90 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cancer invasion depth is a critical factor affecting the choice of treatment in patients with superficial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). However, the diagnosis of invasion depth is currently subjective and liable to interobserver variability. METHODS: We developed a deep learning-based artificial intelligence (AI) system based on Single Shot MultiBox Detector architecture for the assessment of superficial esophageal SCC. We obtained endoscopic images from patients with superficial esophageal SCC at our facility between December 2005 and December 2016. RESULTS: After excluding poor-quality images, 8660 non-magnified endoscopic (non-ME) and 5678 ME images from 804 superficial esophageal SCCs with pathologic proof of cancer invasion depth were used as the training dataset, and 405 non-ME images and 509 ME images from 155 patients were selected for the validation set. Our system showed a sensitivity of 90.1%, specificity of 95.8%, positive predictive value of 99.2%, negative predictive value of 63.9%, and an accuracy of 91.0% for differentiating pathologic mucosal and submucosal microinvasive (SM1) cancers from submucosal deep invasive (SM2/3) cancers. Cancer invasion depth was diagnosed by 16 experienced endoscopists using the same validation set, with an overall sensitivity of 89.8%, specificity of 88.3%, positive predictive value of 97.9%, negative predictive value of 65.5%, and an accuracy of 89.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed AI system showed favorable performance for diagnosing invasion depth in patients with superficial esophageal SCC, with comparable performance to experienced endoscopists. SN - 1097-6779 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31077698/Classification_for_invasion_depth_of_esophageal_squamous_cell_carcinoma_using_a_deep_neural_network_compared_with_experienced_endoscopists_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016-5107(19)31675-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -