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An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits.
Evol Appl 2019; 12(5):1001-1016EA

Abstract

Interactions between domesticated escapees and wild conspecifics represent a threat to the genetic integrity and fitness of native populations. For Atlantic salmon, the recurrent presence of large numbers of domesticated escapees in the wild makes it necessary to better understand their impacts on native populations. We planted 254,400 eggs from 75 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid, and wild salmon in a river containing up- and downstream traps. Additionally, 41,630 hatchery smolts of the same pedigrees were released into the river. Over 8 years, 6,669 out-migrating smolts and 356 returning adults were recaptured and identified to their families of origin with DNA. In comparison with wild salmon, domesticated fish had substantially lower egg to smolt survival (1.8% vs. 3.8% across cohorts), they migrated earlier in the year (11.8 days earlier across years), but they only displayed marginally larger smolt sizes and marginally lower smolt ages. Upon return to freshwater, domesticated salmon were substantially larger at age than wild salmon (2.4 vs. 2.0, 4.8 vs. 3.2, and 8.5 vs. 5.6 kg across sexes for 1, 2, and 3 sea-winter fish) and displayed substantially lower released smolt to adult survival (0.41% vs. 0.94% across releases). Overall, egg-to-returning adult survival ratios were 1:0.76:0.30 and 1:0.44:0.21 for wild:F1-hybrid:domesticated salmon, respectively, using two different types of data. This study represents the most updated and extensive analysis of domesticated, hybrid, and wild salmon in the wild and provides the first documentation of a clear genetic difference in the timing of smolt migration-an adaptive trait presumed to be linked with optimal timing of entry to seawater. We conclude that spawning and hybridization of domesticated escapees can lead to (i) reduced wild smolt output and therefore wild adult abundance, through resource competition in freshwater, (ii) reduced total adult abundance due to freshwater competition and reduced marine survival of domesticated salmon, and (iii) maladaptive changes in phenotypic traits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Marine Research Nordnes, Bergen Norway.Institute of Marine Research Nordnes, Bergen Norway.Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management Ås Norway.NORCE Environment, LFI Bergen Norway.Institute of Marine Research Nordnes, Bergen Norway.NORCE Environment, LFI Bergen Norway.Institute of Marine Research Nordnes, Bergen Norway.Institute of Marine Research Nordnes, Bergen Norway. Department of Bioscience Aarhus University Aarhus C Denmark.Institute of Marine Research Nordnes, Bergen Norway. Department of Biological Sciences University of Bergen Bergen Norway.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31080511

Citation

Skaala, Øystein, et al. "An Extensive Common-garden Study With Domesticated and Wild Atlantic Salmon in the Wild Reveals Impact On Smolt Production and Shifts in Fitness Traits." Evolutionary Applications, vol. 12, no. 5, 2019, pp. 1001-1016.
Skaala Ø, Besnier F, Borgstrøm R, et al. An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. Evol Appl. 2019;12(5):1001-1016.
Skaala, Ø., Besnier, F., Borgstrøm, R., Barlaup, B., Sørvik, A. G., Normann, E., ... Glover, K. A. (2019). An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. Evolutionary Applications, 12(5), pp. 1001-1016. doi:10.1111/eva.12777.
Skaala Ø, et al. An Extensive Common-garden Study With Domesticated and Wild Atlantic Salmon in the Wild Reveals Impact On Smolt Production and Shifts in Fitness Traits. Evol Appl. 2019;12(5):1001-1016. PubMed PMID: 31080511.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An extensive common-garden study with domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon in the wild reveals impact on smolt production and shifts in fitness traits. AU - Skaala,Øystein, AU - Besnier,Francois, AU - Borgstrøm,Reidar, AU - Barlaup,BjørnTorgeir, AU - Sørvik,Anne Grete, AU - Normann,Eirik, AU - Østebø,Britt Iren, AU - Hansen,Michael Møller, AU - Glover,Kevin Alan, Y1 - 2019/03/06/ PY - 2018/12/04/received PY - 2019/01/18/revised PY - 2019/01/19/accepted PY - 2019/5/14/entrez PY - 2019/5/14/pubmed PY - 2019/5/14/medline KW - aquaculture KW - competition KW - fitness KW - genetic KW - hybridization KW - introgression KW - salmon SP - 1001 EP - 1016 JF - Evolutionary applications JO - Evol Appl VL - 12 IS - 5 N2 - Interactions between domesticated escapees and wild conspecifics represent a threat to the genetic integrity and fitness of native populations. For Atlantic salmon, the recurrent presence of large numbers of domesticated escapees in the wild makes it necessary to better understand their impacts on native populations. We planted 254,400 eggs from 75 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid, and wild salmon in a river containing up- and downstream traps. Additionally, 41,630 hatchery smolts of the same pedigrees were released into the river. Over 8 years, 6,669 out-migrating smolts and 356 returning adults were recaptured and identified to their families of origin with DNA. In comparison with wild salmon, domesticated fish had substantially lower egg to smolt survival (1.8% vs. 3.8% across cohorts), they migrated earlier in the year (11.8 days earlier across years), but they only displayed marginally larger smolt sizes and marginally lower smolt ages. Upon return to freshwater, domesticated salmon were substantially larger at age than wild salmon (2.4 vs. 2.0, 4.8 vs. 3.2, and 8.5 vs. 5.6 kg across sexes for 1, 2, and 3 sea-winter fish) and displayed substantially lower released smolt to adult survival (0.41% vs. 0.94% across releases). Overall, egg-to-returning adult survival ratios were 1:0.76:0.30 and 1:0.44:0.21 for wild:F1-hybrid:domesticated salmon, respectively, using two different types of data. This study represents the most updated and extensive analysis of domesticated, hybrid, and wild salmon in the wild and provides the first documentation of a clear genetic difference in the timing of smolt migration-an adaptive trait presumed to be linked with optimal timing of entry to seawater. We conclude that spawning and hybridization of domesticated escapees can lead to (i) reduced wild smolt output and therefore wild adult abundance, through resource competition in freshwater, (ii) reduced total adult abundance due to freshwater competition and reduced marine survival of domesticated salmon, and (iii) maladaptive changes in phenotypic traits. SN - 1752-4571 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31080511/An_extensive_common-garden_study_with_domesticated_and_wild_Atlantic_salmon_in_the_wild_reveals_impact_on_smolt_production_and_shifts_in_fitness_traits L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12777 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -