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Neuroanatomy, Upper Motor Nerve Signs

Abstract
The initiation and coordination of movement are under the control of an immense network of nerves in the central nervous system (CNS) that originate from the cerebral cortex and course through the internal capsule, brainstem, and spinal cord. The impulses for movement are carried by nerves known as upper motor neurons (UMN). The pyramidal tract is the primary tract which propagates signals necessary for voluntary movement. The pyramidal tract divides into the corticospinal tract and the corticobulbar tract. Injury to UMNs in these tracts is common because of the large areas covered by the motor neuron pathway. Any injury to these tracts is known as UMN lesions. Damage to UMNs results in characteristic clinical manifestations colloquially termed “upper motor neuron signs” or “upper motor neuron syndrome.” The symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and clonus. Damage to UMNs of the corticobulbar tract can manifest as dysphagia and dysarthria. Distinguishing upper motor neuron signs from lower motor neuron signs is essential in the neurological physical exam.[1]

Publisher

StatPearls Publishing
Treasure Island (FL)

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31082126

Citation

Emos MC, Rosner J: Neuroanatomy, Upper Motor Nerve Signs.StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, 2019, Treasure Island (FL).
Emos MC, Rosner J. Neuroanatomy, Upper Motor Nerve Signs. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019.
Emos MC & Rosner J. (2019). Neuroanatomy, Upper Motor Nerve Signs. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing;
Emos MC, Rosner J. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2019.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - CHAP T1 - Neuroanatomy, Upper Motor Nerve Signs BT - StatPearls A1 - Emos,Marc Christopher, AU - Rosner,Julie, Y1 - 2019/01// PY - 2019/5/15/pubmed PY - 2019/5/15/medline PY - 2019/5/15/entrez N2 - The initiation and coordination of movement are under the control of an immense network of nerves in the central nervous system (CNS) that originate from the cerebral cortex and course through the internal capsule, brainstem, and spinal cord. The impulses for movement are carried by nerves known as upper motor neurons (UMN). The pyramidal tract is the primary tract which propagates signals necessary for voluntary movement. The pyramidal tract divides into the corticospinal tract and the corticobulbar tract. Injury to UMNs in these tracts is common because of the large areas covered by the motor neuron pathway. Any injury to these tracts is known as UMN lesions. Damage to UMNs results in characteristic clinical manifestations colloquially termed “upper motor neuron signs” or “upper motor neuron syndrome.” The symptoms include muscle weakness, spasticity, hyperreflexia, and clonus. Damage to UMNs of the corticobulbar tract can manifest as dysphagia and dysarthria. Distinguishing upper motor neuron signs from lower motor neuron signs is essential in the neurological physical exam.[1] PB - StatPearls Publishing CY - Treasure Island (FL) UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31082126/StatPearls:_Neuroanatomy,_Upper_Motor_Nerve_Signs L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK541082 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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