Offspring analysis using two cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers reveals amphithallism in the edible mushroom Agaricus sinodeliciosus.Mycologia. 2019 May-Jun; 111(3):384-394.M
Agaricus sinodeliciosus is an edible wild mushroom known in northwest China. It belongs to Agaricus section Bivelares that includes several popular cultivated species, such as A. bisporus, the button mushroom. The life cycle of the latter species has been described as amphithallic because both homokaryotic (n) and heterokaryotic (n+n) spores are produced that lead to heterothallic and pseudohomothallic life cycles, respectively. The type of life cycle can impact population structures and breeding strategies. The main objective of this study was to identify the different categories of spores produced by A. sinodeliciosus. Using either a morphological approach based on the number of sterigmata per basidium or a genetic approach based on the genotypes of the progeny at two loci, the proportion of heterokaryotic spores was estimated at 6% and 15%, respectively. Two codominant markers were chosen from the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase gene (MIP) and the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) region. Genotypic analysis and mating tests confirmed that in A. sinodeliciosus, MIP is centromere-linked and tightly linked to the mating type locus as in A. bisporus and A. subrufescens. We conclude that A. sinodeliciosus has a unifactorial system of sexual incompatibility and an amphithallic life cycle that is predominantly heterothallic, and that its pseudohomothallism follows a nonrandom model with nonsister postmeiotic nuclei paired in the same spore, which give rise to a potentially fertile heterokaryon. This method of using two informative markers is reliable not only in selecting the homokaryotic offspring but also in classifying the homokaryons in two breeding stocks according to their mating type alleles.