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Absence of vitamin D deficiency among common outdoor workers in Delhi.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019 08; 91(2):356-362.CE

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is reservation about accepting the notion of widespread vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in sunny countries because information base is largely urban indoors, and the cut-off serum 25(OH)D > 75.0 nmol/L to define sufficiency is perceived as high.

OBJECTIVE

We assessed the vitamin D status of subjects engaged in six types of outdoor jobs with freedom to seek shade, when needed.

DESIGN

Descriptive observational study.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

A total of 573 outdoors, (hawkers, n = 144; auto-rickshaw drivers, n = 113; manual rickshaw pullers, n = 49; fuel-station attendants, n = 84; gardeners, n = 96; traffic police personnel, n = 87) were assessed for serum 25(OH)D, iPTH and total calcium during summer and winter. Bank employees were indoor controls (n = 72). Serum 25(OH)D was defined as sufficient if ≥50.0 nmol/L and deficient when <30.0 nmol/L, as per 'Institute of Medicine'.

RESULTS

Mean serum 25(OH)D of 573 outdoors was 44.8 ± 19.6 nmol/L and showed a physiological inverse relation with iPTH (P < 0.001). 77.5% of the outdoors did not have VDD. Hawkers, gardeners, fuel-station attendants and rickshaw pullers had sufficient or near sufficient serum 25(OH)D. The mean serum 25(OH)D (30.6 ± 23.2 nmol/L) of indoors though lower by 12.7 nmol/L than outdoors was above the cut-off of VDD. Proportions with supranormal iPTH were comparable between outdoors and indoors (14.0% vs 20.8%). Despite winter dip, the mean serum 25(OH)D (31.2 ± 14.3 nmol/l) of outdoors was not deficient.

CONCLUSIONS

Vitamin D deficiency is not universal. Most urban outdoor workers do not have VDD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.Department of Cardiac Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31087795

Citation

Dharmshaktu, Pramila, et al. "Absence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Common Outdoor Workers in Delhi." Clinical Endocrinology, vol. 91, no. 2, 2019, pp. 356-362.
Dharmshaktu P, Saha S, Kar P, et al. Absence of vitamin D deficiency among common outdoor workers in Delhi. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019;91(2):356-362.
Dharmshaktu, P., Saha, S., Kar, P., Sreenivas, V., Ramakrishnan, L., & Goswami, R. (2019). Absence of vitamin D deficiency among common outdoor workers in Delhi. Clinical Endocrinology, 91(2), 356-362. https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.14012
Dharmshaktu P, et al. Absence of Vitamin D Deficiency Among Common Outdoor Workers in Delhi. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019;91(2):356-362. PubMed PMID: 31087795.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Absence of vitamin D deficiency among common outdoor workers in Delhi. AU - Dharmshaktu,Pramila, AU - Saha,Soma, AU - Kar,Parmita, AU - Sreenivas,Vishnubhatla, AU - Ramakrishnan,Lakshmy, AU - Goswami,Ravinder, Y1 - 2019/05/28/ PY - 2019/03/18/received PY - 2019/04/15/revised PY - 2019/05/13/accepted PY - 2019/5/16/pubmed PY - 2020/8/15/medline PY - 2019/5/16/entrez KW - 25(OH)D KW - outdoor workers KW - vitamin D SP - 356 EP - 362 JF - Clinical endocrinology JO - Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) VL - 91 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is reservation about accepting the notion of widespread vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in sunny countries because information base is largely urban indoors, and the cut-off serum 25(OH)D > 75.0 nmol/L to define sufficiency is perceived as high. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the vitamin D status of subjects engaged in six types of outdoor jobs with freedom to seek shade, when needed. DESIGN: Descriptive observational study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 573 outdoors, (hawkers, n = 144; auto-rickshaw drivers, n = 113; manual rickshaw pullers, n = 49; fuel-station attendants, n = 84; gardeners, n = 96; traffic police personnel, n = 87) were assessed for serum 25(OH)D, iPTH and total calcium during summer and winter. Bank employees were indoor controls (n = 72). Serum 25(OH)D was defined as sufficient if ≥50.0 nmol/L and deficient when <30.0 nmol/L, as per 'Institute of Medicine'. RESULTS: Mean serum 25(OH)D of 573 outdoors was 44.8 ± 19.6 nmol/L and showed a physiological inverse relation with iPTH (P < 0.001). 77.5% of the outdoors did not have VDD. Hawkers, gardeners, fuel-station attendants and rickshaw pullers had sufficient or near sufficient serum 25(OH)D. The mean serum 25(OH)D (30.6 ± 23.2 nmol/L) of indoors though lower by 12.7 nmol/L than outdoors was above the cut-off of VDD. Proportions with supranormal iPTH were comparable between outdoors and indoors (14.0% vs 20.8%). Despite winter dip, the mean serum 25(OH)D (31.2 ± 14.3 nmol/l) of outdoors was not deficient. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is not universal. Most urban outdoor workers do not have VDD. SN - 1365-2265 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31087795/Absence_of_vitamin_D_deficiency_among_common_outdoor_workers_in_Delhi_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/cen.14012 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -