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Chemical fractionation, bioavailability, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter at a site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Jul; 26(19):19749-19762.ES

Abstract

In the present study, the distribution and chemical fractionation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in PM2.5 collected at Sikandarpur in Agra from September 2015 to February 2016 were carried out to evaluate their mobility potential, environmental, and human health risk through inhalation. Sequential extraction procedure was applied to partition the heavy metals into four fractions (soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1); carbonates, oxides, and reducible fraction (F2); bound to organic matter, oxidizable, and sulphidic fraction (F3); and residual fraction (F4)) in PM2.5 samples. The metals in each fraction were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Daily PM2.5 concentration ranged between 13 and 238 μg m-3 during the study period. For more than 92% of the days, the mass concentrations were greater than the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) set at 60 μg m-3. The total mass concentration of the eight metals was 3.3 μg m-3 that accounted for 2.5% of the PM2.5 mass concentration and followed the order Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in dominance. The carcinogenic metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) comprised 10% of the total metal determined. Almost all the metals had the highest proportion in the residual fraction (F4) except Ni, which had the highest proportion in the reducible fraction (F2). Chemical fractionation and contamination factor (CF) showed that Pb and Ni are readily mobilized and more bioavailable. Risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn had medium environmental risk, while Cr and Fe had low risk. When the bioavailable (F1 + F2) concentrations were applied to calculate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk, the results showed that the value of hazard index (HI) for toxic metals was 1.7 for both children and adults through inhalation. The integrated carcinogenic risk was 1.8 × 10-6 for children and 7.3 × 10-6 for adults, with both values being higher than the precautionary criterion (1 × 10-6). Enrichment factor (EF) calculations showed that Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni were enriched being contributed by anthropogenic activities carried out in the industrial sectors of the city.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra (UP), Agra, India.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra (UP), Agra, India.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra (UP), Agra, India.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra (UP), Agra, India. anita.lakhani01@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31089995

Citation

Sah, Dinesh, et al. "Chemical Fractionation, Bioavailability, and Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Fine Particulate Matter at a Site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 26, no. 19, 2019, pp. 19749-19762.
Sah D, Verma PK, Kandikonda MK, et al. Chemical fractionation, bioavailability, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter at a site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(19):19749-19762.
Sah, D., Verma, P. K., Kandikonda, M. K., & Lakhani, A. (2019). Chemical fractionation, bioavailability, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter at a site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 26(19), 19749-19762. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05144-8
Sah D, et al. Chemical Fractionation, Bioavailability, and Health Risks of Heavy Metals in Fine Particulate Matter at a Site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(19):19749-19762. PubMed PMID: 31089995.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Chemical fractionation, bioavailability, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter at a site in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, India. AU - Sah,Dinesh, AU - Verma,Puneet Kumar, AU - Kandikonda,Maharaj Kumari, AU - Lakhani,Anita, Y1 - 2019/05/14/ PY - 2018/06/01/received PY - 2019/04/08/accepted PY - 2019/5/16/pubmed PY - 2019/8/31/medline PY - 2019/5/16/entrez KW - Bioavailability KW - Chemical fractionation KW - Enrichment factor KW - Health risk KW - Heavy metal KW - PM2.5 SP - 19749 EP - 19762 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 26 IS - 19 N2 - In the present study, the distribution and chemical fractionation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in PM2.5 collected at Sikandarpur in Agra from September 2015 to February 2016 were carried out to evaluate their mobility potential, environmental, and human health risk through inhalation. Sequential extraction procedure was applied to partition the heavy metals into four fractions (soluble and exchangeable fraction (F1); carbonates, oxides, and reducible fraction (F2); bound to organic matter, oxidizable, and sulphidic fraction (F3); and residual fraction (F4)) in PM2.5 samples. The metals in each fraction were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Daily PM2.5 concentration ranged between 13 and 238 μg m-3 during the study period. For more than 92% of the days, the mass concentrations were greater than the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) set at 60 μg m-3. The total mass concentration of the eight metals was 3.3 μg m-3 that accounted for 2.5% of the PM2.5 mass concentration and followed the order Fe > Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cr in dominance. The carcinogenic metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb) comprised 10% of the total metal determined. Almost all the metals had the highest proportion in the residual fraction (F4) except Ni, which had the highest proportion in the reducible fraction (F2). Chemical fractionation and contamination factor (CF) showed that Pb and Ni are readily mobilized and more bioavailable. Risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn had medium environmental risk, while Cr and Fe had low risk. When the bioavailable (F1 + F2) concentrations were applied to calculate non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk, the results showed that the value of hazard index (HI) for toxic metals was 1.7 for both children and adults through inhalation. The integrated carcinogenic risk was 1.8 × 10-6 for children and 7.3 × 10-6 for adults, with both values being higher than the precautionary criterion (1 × 10-6). Enrichment factor (EF) calculations showed that Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni were enriched being contributed by anthropogenic activities carried out in the industrial sectors of the city. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31089995/Chemical_fractionation_bioavailability_and_health_risks_of_heavy_metals_in_fine_particulate_matter_at_a_site_in_the_Indo_Gangetic_Plain_India_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -