Ocular Carotenoid Status in Health and Disease.Annu Rev Nutr 2019; 39:95-120AR
Retinal carotenoids are dietary nutrients that uniquely protect the eye from light damage and various retinal pathologies. Their antioxidative properties protect the eye from many retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. As many retinal diseases are accompanied by low carotenoid levels, accurate noninvasive assessment of carotenoid status can help ophthalmologists identify the patients most likely to benefit from carotenoid supplementation. This review focuses on the different methods available to assess carotenoid status and highlights disease-related changes and potential nutritional interventions.