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Baseline investigation on plasticizers, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface soil of the informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in Indian metropolitan cities.
Environ Pollut. 2019 May; 248:1036-1045.EP

Abstract

Electronic waste (e-waste) has emerged as a global environmental problem because of its massive production volume and un-structured management policy. Since the rate of e-waste accumulation is startling and the combinatorial effects of toxicants are complex, we have investigated six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), bisphenol A (BPA), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight heavy metals (HMs) in the surface soil of e-waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in four metropolitan cities of India viz., New Delhi (north), Kolkata (east), Mumbai (west) and Chennai (south). Average concentration of ∑16PAHs (1259 ng/g), ∑6PAEs (396 ng/g), BPA (140 ng/g) and ∑8HM (1288 mg/kg) in the informal e-waste recycling sites were higher than ∑16PAHs (1029 ng/g), ∑6PAEs (93 ng/g), BPA (121 ng/g) and ∑8HM (675 mg/kg) in dumpsites. Almost 50-90% of BPA, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), ∑7carcPAHs and copper (Cu) were from e-waste sites predominantly from metal recovery sites (EWR). Extensive combustion of e-waste particularly in the EWR sites at New Moore market and Pudupet in Chennai and Wire Lane, Kurla of Mumbai can explain the segregation of diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and carcinogenic PAHs in the first principal component (PC-1). Copper and lead along with highly abundant plasticizers like DEHP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and BPA were loaded in PC-2. Combined impact of burning the plastic cables in e-waste and acid leaching process especially at Mandoli in New Delhi might have driven this result. Loading of chrysene, DEHA and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs mostly in dumpsite soil might have resulted from incomplete combustion of dumped e-waste. Copper was found to exhibit the highest pollution estimated by geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Maximum estimated carcinogenic risk for adults via dermal contact was due to copper, followed by chromium, lead and nickel.

Authors+Show Affiliations

SRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, 603203, India; Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, 603203, India. Electronic address: paromita.c@res.srmuniv.ac.in.SRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, 603203, India.Department of Civil Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, 603203, India.SRM Research Institute, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, 603203, India.Mu Gamma Consultants Pvt. Ltd., Gurgaon, India.Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalléen 21, 0349, Oslo, Norway; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment (RECETOX), Kamenice 753/5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31091636

Citation

Chakraborty, Paromita, et al. "Baseline Investigation On Plasticizers, Bisphenol A, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil of the Informal Electronic Waste Recycling Workshops and Nearby Open Dumpsites in Indian Metropolitan Cities." Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), vol. 248, 2019, pp. 1036-1045.
Chakraborty P, Sampath S, Mukhopadhyay M, et al. Baseline investigation on plasticizers, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface soil of the informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in Indian metropolitan cities. Environ Pollut. 2019;248:1036-1045.
Chakraborty, P., Sampath, S., Mukhopadhyay, M., Selvaraj, S., Bharat, G. K., & Nizzetto, L. (2019). Baseline investigation on plasticizers, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface soil of the informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in Indian metropolitan cities. Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 248, 1036-1045. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.11.010
Chakraborty P, et al. Baseline Investigation On Plasticizers, Bisphenol A, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals in the Surface Soil of the Informal Electronic Waste Recycling Workshops and Nearby Open Dumpsites in Indian Metropolitan Cities. Environ Pollut. 2019;248:1036-1045. PubMed PMID: 31091636.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Baseline investigation on plasticizers, bisphenol A, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface soil of the informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in Indian metropolitan cities. AU - Chakraborty,Paromita, AU - Sampath,Srimurali, AU - Mukhopadhyay,Moitraiyee, AU - Selvaraj,Sakthivel, AU - Bharat,Girija K, AU - Nizzetto,Luca, Y1 - 2018/11/05/ PY - 2018/06/30/received PY - 2018/10/17/revised PY - 2018/11/02/accepted PY - 2019/5/17/entrez PY - 2019/5/17/pubmed PY - 2019/7/12/medline KW - BPA KW - Electronic waste KW - Heavy metals KW - India KW - PAHs KW - Plasticizers KW - Soil SP - 1036 EP - 1045 JF - Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) JO - Environ Pollut VL - 248 N2 - Electronic waste (e-waste) has emerged as a global environmental problem because of its massive production volume and un-structured management policy. Since the rate of e-waste accumulation is startling and the combinatorial effects of toxicants are complex, we have investigated six phthalic acid esters (PAEs), bis (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA)), bisphenol A (BPA), sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight heavy metals (HMs) in the surface soil of e-waste recycling workshops and nearby open dumpsites in four metropolitan cities of India viz., New Delhi (north), Kolkata (east), Mumbai (west) and Chennai (south). Average concentration of ∑16PAHs (1259 ng/g), ∑6PAEs (396 ng/g), BPA (140 ng/g) and ∑8HM (1288 mg/kg) in the informal e-waste recycling sites were higher than ∑16PAHs (1029 ng/g), ∑6PAEs (93 ng/g), BPA (121 ng/g) and ∑8HM (675 mg/kg) in dumpsites. Almost 50-90% of BPA, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), ∑7carcPAHs and copper (Cu) were from e-waste sites predominantly from metal recovery sites (EWR). Extensive combustion of e-waste particularly in the EWR sites at New Moore market and Pudupet in Chennai and Wire Lane, Kurla of Mumbai can explain the segregation of diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and carcinogenic PAHs in the first principal component (PC-1). Copper and lead along with highly abundant plasticizers like DEHP, dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and BPA were loaded in PC-2. Combined impact of burning the plastic cables in e-waste and acid leaching process especially at Mandoli in New Delhi might have driven this result. Loading of chrysene, DEHA and low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs mostly in dumpsite soil might have resulted from incomplete combustion of dumped e-waste. Copper was found to exhibit the highest pollution estimated by geo-accumulation index (Igeo). Maximum estimated carcinogenic risk for adults via dermal contact was due to copper, followed by chromium, lead and nickel. SN - 1873-6424 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31091636/Baseline_investigation_on_plasticizers_bisphenol_A_polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbons_and_heavy_metals_in_the_surface_soil_of_the_informal_electronic_waste_recycling_workshops_and_nearby_open_dumpsites_in_Indian_metropolitan_cities_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0269-7491(18)33016-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -