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Body mass index and dental caries experience in Nepalese schoolchildren.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019 08; 47(4):346-357.CD

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

The aim was to investigate the severity of untreated dental caries among Nepalese schoolchildren and its association with their body mass index (BMI) using IOTF, WHO and Nepalese growth reference systems.

METHODS

This school-based clinical cross-sectional study was conducted with three WHO index age groups (5- to 6-, 12- and 15-year-olds) in 18 out of 75 districts of Nepal, selected using stratified random sampling. A total of 1135 schoolchildren were included in the study. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess the children's oral hygiene practices and dietary habits. Clinical oral examinations investigated the status of untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth (dt/DT) along with its consequences (pufa/PUFA). Later, the grade of severity of untreated dental caries (GUDC) was determined using both dt/DT and pufa/PUFA. Height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm) and hip circumference (cm) were measured, and the body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. The findings were presented as proportions, and the chi-square test was performed to compare differences between groups. Generalized linear mixed models with random effects assessed the association between the severity of untreated dental caries and the BMI.

RESULTS

According to the IOTF, WHO and Nepalese growth reference systems, the overall proportions of children with a low BMI were 38.6%, 15.4% and 12.8%, and those with a high BMI were 7.9%, 4.6% and 8.4%, respectively. Untreated dental caries was common among the youngest age group and those with infrequent tooth brushing habits or frequent consumption of sweet bakery products, sweets or candy, or tea with sugar. Neither a low nor a high BMI was associated either with dt + DT or with pufa + PUFA, after adjusting for confounders. However, both a low and a high BMI (all three references) were associated with the severity of dental caries or GUDC.

CONCLUSION

Regardless of the growth reference system used, children with either low or high BMI may be at risk of developing untreated dental caries lesions and related consequences. Both underweight and overweight/obese and dental caries share common risk factors, mostly dietary. Preventive and intervention approaches/strategies such as behavioural and dietary modifications should be implemented to improve both children's oral health and their nutrition in Nepal.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. School of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu University, Kathmandu, Nepal.Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.School of Medical Sciences, Kathmandu University, Kathmandu, Nepal.Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland. Department of Children and Adolescents, PEDEGO Research Center, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. Medical Research Center Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31094008

Citation

Karki, Saujanya, et al. "Body Mass Index and Dental Caries Experience in Nepalese Schoolchildren." Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 47, no. 4, 2019, pp. 346-357.
Karki S, Päkkilä J, Ryhänen T, et al. Body mass index and dental caries experience in Nepalese schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019;47(4):346-357.
Karki, S., Päkkilä, J., Ryhänen, T., Laitala, M. L., Humagain, M., Ojaniemi, M., & Anttonen, V. (2019). Body mass index and dental caries experience in Nepalese schoolchildren. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 47(4), 346-357. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12465
Karki S, et al. Body Mass Index and Dental Caries Experience in Nepalese Schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019;47(4):346-357. PubMed PMID: 31094008.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Body mass index and dental caries experience in Nepalese schoolchildren. AU - Karki,Saujanya, AU - Päkkilä,Jari, AU - Ryhänen,Tapio, AU - Laitala,Marja-Liisa, AU - Humagain,Manoj, AU - Ojaniemi,Marja, AU - Anttonen,Vuokko, Y1 - 2019/05/15/ PY - 2018/09/25/received PY - 2019/03/14/revised PY - 2019/04/19/accepted PY - 2019/5/17/pubmed PY - 2020/1/28/medline PY - 2019/5/17/entrez KW - Nepal KW - body mass index KW - child KW - dental caries SP - 346 EP - 357 JF - Community dentistry and oral epidemiology JO - Community Dent Oral Epidemiol VL - 47 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate the severity of untreated dental caries among Nepalese schoolchildren and its association with their body mass index (BMI) using IOTF, WHO and Nepalese growth reference systems. METHODS: This school-based clinical cross-sectional study was conducted with three WHO index age groups (5- to 6-, 12- and 15-year-olds) in 18 out of 75 districts of Nepal, selected using stratified random sampling. A total of 1135 schoolchildren were included in the study. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess the children's oral hygiene practices and dietary habits. Clinical oral examinations investigated the status of untreated dental caries in primary and permanent teeth (dt/DT) along with its consequences (pufa/PUFA). Later, the grade of severity of untreated dental caries (GUDC) was determined using both dt/DT and pufa/PUFA. Height (cm), weight (kg), waist circumference (cm) and hip circumference (cm) were measured, and the body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. The findings were presented as proportions, and the chi-square test was performed to compare differences between groups. Generalized linear mixed models with random effects assessed the association between the severity of untreated dental caries and the BMI. RESULTS: According to the IOTF, WHO and Nepalese growth reference systems, the overall proportions of children with a low BMI were 38.6%, 15.4% and 12.8%, and those with a high BMI were 7.9%, 4.6% and 8.4%, respectively. Untreated dental caries was common among the youngest age group and those with infrequent tooth brushing habits or frequent consumption of sweet bakery products, sweets or candy, or tea with sugar. Neither a low nor a high BMI was associated either with dt + DT or with pufa + PUFA, after adjusting for confounders. However, both a low and a high BMI (all three references) were associated with the severity of dental caries or GUDC. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the growth reference system used, children with either low or high BMI may be at risk of developing untreated dental caries lesions and related consequences. Both underweight and overweight/obese and dental caries share common risk factors, mostly dietary. Preventive and intervention approaches/strategies such as behavioural and dietary modifications should be implemented to improve both children's oral health and their nutrition in Nepal. SN - 1600-0528 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31094008/Body_mass_index_and_dental_caries_experience_in_Nepalese_schoolchildren_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12465 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -