Iron Deficiency and Iron Homeostasis in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review.Nutrients 2019; 11(5)N
Iron is an essential micronutrient that is involved in many functions in humans, as it plays a critical role in the growth and development of the central nervous system, among others. Premature and low birth weight infants have higher iron requirements due to increased postnatal growth compared to that of term infants and are, therefore, susceptible to a higher risk of developing iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia. Notwithstanding, excess iron could affect organ development during the postnatal period, particularly in premature infants that have an immature and undeveloped antioxidant system. It is important, therefore, to perform a review and analyze the effects of iron status on the growth of premature infants. This is a transversal descriptive study of retrieved reports in the scientific literature by a systematic technique. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were adapted for the review strategy. The inclusion criteria for the studies were made using the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) model. Consequently, the systematic reviews that included studies published between 2008-2018 were evaluated based on the impact of iron status on parameters of growth and development in preterm infants.