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Abuse potential and toxicity of the synthetic cathinones (i.e., "Bath salts").
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020 03; 110:150-173.NB

Abstract

The synthetic cathinones are derived from the naturally occurring drug cathinone found in the khat plant (Catha edulis) and have chemical structures and neurochemical consequences similar to other psychostimulants. This class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) also has potential for use and abuse coupled with a range of possible adverse effects including neurotoxicity and lethality. This review provides a general background of the synthetic cathinones in terms of the motivation for and patterns and demographics of their use as well as the behavioral and physiological effects that led to their spread as abused substances and consequent regulatory control. This background is followed by a review focusing on their rewarding and aversive effects as assessed in various pre-clinical animal models and the contribution of these effects to their self-administration (implicating their use and abuse potential). The review closes with an overview of the consequences of synthetic cathinone use and abuse in terms of their potential to produce neurotoxicity and lethality. These characterizations are discussed in the context of other classical psychostimulants.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC, USA. Electronic address: alriley@american.edu.Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC, USA.Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC, USA.Psychopharmacology Laboratory, Center for Behavioral Neuroscience, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Ave, NW, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry, Pharmacology Section and Institute of Biomedicine (IBUB), Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Science, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.Drug Intelligence and Forensic Center, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing, PR China.Drug Intelligence and Forensic Center, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing, PR China.Drug Intelligence and Forensic Center, Ministry of Public Security, Beijing, PR China.Department of Pharmacology, Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.Research & Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.Research & Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.Research & Development Service, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA; Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA.Department of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacology and Pharmacological Science, University of Toledo, OH, USA.Department of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, College of Pharmacology and Pharmacological Science, University of Toledo, OH, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31101438

Citation

Riley, Anthony L., et al. "Abuse Potential and Toxicity of the Synthetic Cathinones (i.e., "Bath Salts")." Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, vol. 110, 2020, pp. 150-173.
Riley AL, Nelson KH, To P, et al. Abuse potential and toxicity of the synthetic cathinones (i.e., "Bath salts"). Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020;110:150-173.
Riley, A. L., Nelson, K. H., To, P., López-Arnau, R., Xu, P., Wang, D., Wang, Y., Shen, H. W., Kuhn, D. M., Angoa-Perez, M., Anneken, J. H., Muskiewicz, D., & Hall, F. S. (2020). Abuse potential and toxicity of the synthetic cathinones (i.e., "Bath salts"). Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 110, 150-173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.07.015
Riley AL, et al. Abuse Potential and Toxicity of the Synthetic Cathinones (i.e., "Bath Salts"). Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2020;110:150-173. PubMed PMID: 31101438.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Abuse potential and toxicity of the synthetic cathinones (i.e., "Bath salts"). AU - Riley,Anthony L, AU - Nelson,Katharine H, AU - To,Peter, AU - López-Arnau,Raul, AU - Xu,Peng, AU - Wang,Dan, AU - Wang,Youmei, AU - Shen,Hao-Wei, AU - Kuhn,Donald M, AU - Angoa-Perez,Mariana, AU - Anneken,John H, AU - Muskiewicz,Dawn, AU - Hall,F Scott, Y1 - 2019/05/14/ PY - 2018/05/02/received PY - 2018/06/14/revised PY - 2018/07/24/accepted PY - 2019/5/19/pubmed PY - 2021/1/12/medline PY - 2019/5/19/entrez KW - Drug abuse KW - Lethality KW - Neurotoxicity KW - New psychoactive substances (NPS) KW - Synthetic cathinones KW - “Bath salts” SP - 150 EP - 173 JF - Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews JO - Neurosci Biobehav Rev VL - 110 N2 - The synthetic cathinones are derived from the naturally occurring drug cathinone found in the khat plant (Catha edulis) and have chemical structures and neurochemical consequences similar to other psychostimulants. This class of new psychoactive substances (NPS) also has potential for use and abuse coupled with a range of possible adverse effects including neurotoxicity and lethality. This review provides a general background of the synthetic cathinones in terms of the motivation for and patterns and demographics of their use as well as the behavioral and physiological effects that led to their spread as abused substances and consequent regulatory control. This background is followed by a review focusing on their rewarding and aversive effects as assessed in various pre-clinical animal models and the contribution of these effects to their self-administration (implicating their use and abuse potential). The review closes with an overview of the consequences of synthetic cathinone use and abuse in terms of their potential to produce neurotoxicity and lethality. These characterizations are discussed in the context of other classical psychostimulants. SN - 1873-7528 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31101438/Abuse_potential_and_toxicity_of_the_synthetic_cathinones__i_e__"Bath_salts"__ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0149-7634(18)30319-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -