Familial intrahepatic cholestasis: New and wide perspectives.Dig Liver Dis 2019; 51(7):922-933DL
Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) includes autosomal recessive cholestatic rare diseases of childhood.
To update the panel of single genes mutations involved in familial cholestasis.
PubMed search for "familial intrahepatic cholestasis" alone as well as in combination with other key words was performed considering primarily original studies and meta-analyses.
PFIC1 involves ATP8B1 gene encoding for aminophospholipid flippase FIC1. PFIC2 includes ABCB11 gene, encoding for protein functioning as bile salt export pump. PFIC3 is due to mutations of ABCB4 gene responsible for the synthesis of class III multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein flippase. PFIC4 and PFIC5 involve tight junction protein-2 gene and NR1H4 gene encoding for farnesoid X receptor. Benign Intrahepatic Cholestasis, Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy and Low-phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis involve the same genes and are characterized by intermittent attacks of cholestasis, no progression to cirrhosis, reversible pregnancy-specific cholestasis and cholelithiasis in young people. Blood and liver tissue levels of bile-excreted drugs can be influenced by the presence of mutations in PFIC genes, causing drug-induced cholestasis. Mutations in PFIC genes might increase the risk of liver cancer.
There is a high proportion of unexplained cholestasis potentially caused by specific genetic pathophysiologic pathways. The use of next generation sequencing and whole-exome sequencing could improve the diagnostic process in this setting.