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The Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier MASC-3 for Wind and Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer.
Sensors (Basel) 2019; 19(10)S

Abstract

For atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) studies, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide new information in addition to traditional in-situ measurements, or by ground- or satellite-based remote sensing techniques. The ability of fixed-wing UAS to transect the ABL in short time supplement ground-based measurements and the ability to extent the data horizontally and vertically allows manifold investigations. Thus, the measurements can provide many new possibilities for investigating the ABL. This study presents the new mark of the Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier (MASC-3) for wind and turbulence measurements and describes the subsystems designed to improve the wind measurement, to gain endurance and to allow operations under an enlarged range of environmental conditions. The airframe, the capabilities of the autopilot Pixhawk 2.1, the sensor system and the data acquisition software, as well as the post-processing software, provide the basis for flight experiments and are described in detail. Two flights in a stable boundary-layer and a close comparison to a measurement tower and a Sodar system depict the accuracy of the wind speed and direction measurements, as well as the turbulence measurements. Mean values, variances, covariance, turbulent kinetic energy and the integral length scale agree well with measurements from a meteorological measurement tower. MASC-3 performs valuable measurements of stable boundary layers with high temporal resolution and supplements the measurements of meteorological towers and sodar systems.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. alexander.rautenberg@uni-tuebingen.de.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. martin.schoen@uni-tuebingen.de.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. kjell.zum-berge@uni-tuebingen.de.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. moritz.mauz@uni-tuebingen.de.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. manzp@gmx.de.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. andreas.platis@uni-tuebingen.de.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. bram.vankesteren@uni-tuebingen.de.Finnish Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 503, 00101 Helsinki, Finland. irene.suomi@fmi.fi.Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Postbox 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway. stephan.kral@uib.no.Center for Applied Geoscience, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Hölderlinstr. 12, 72074 Tübingen, Germany. jens.bange@uni-tuebingen.de.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31109010

Citation

Rautenberg, Alexander, et al. "The Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier MASC-3 for Wind and Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer." Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), vol. 19, no. 10, 2019.
Rautenberg A, Schön M, Zum Berge K, et al. The Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier MASC-3 for Wind and Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Sensors (Basel). 2019;19(10).
Rautenberg, A., Schön, M., Zum Berge, K., Mauz, M., Manz, P., Platis, A., ... Bange, J. (2019). The Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier MASC-3 for Wind and Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 19(10), doi:10.3390/s19102292.
Rautenberg A, et al. The Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier MASC-3 for Wind and Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Sensors (Basel). 2019 May 17;19(10) PubMed PMID: 31109010.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier MASC-3 for Wind and Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. AU - Rautenberg,Alexander, AU - Schön,Martin, AU - Zum Berge,Kjell, AU - Mauz,Moritz, AU - Manz,Patrick, AU - Platis,Andreas, AU - van Kesteren,Bram, AU - Suomi,Irene, AU - Kral,Stephan T, AU - Bange,Jens, Y1 - 2019/05/17/ PY - 2019/03/18/received PY - 2019/05/05/revised PY - 2019/05/13/accepted PY - 2019/5/22/entrez PY - 2019/5/22/pubmed PY - 2019/5/22/medline KW - 3D wind vector measurement KW - comparison with measurement tower KW - fixed-wing unmanned aircraft KW - remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) KW - stable boundary layer KW - turbulence measurement KW - unmanned aircraft system (UAS) JF - Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) JO - Sensors (Basel) VL - 19 IS - 10 N2 - For atmospheric boundary-layer (ABL) studies, unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can provide new information in addition to traditional in-situ measurements, or by ground- or satellite-based remote sensing techniques. The ability of fixed-wing UAS to transect the ABL in short time supplement ground-based measurements and the ability to extent the data horizontally and vertically allows manifold investigations. Thus, the measurements can provide many new possibilities for investigating the ABL. This study presents the new mark of the Multi-Purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier (MASC-3) for wind and turbulence measurements and describes the subsystems designed to improve the wind measurement, to gain endurance and to allow operations under an enlarged range of environmental conditions. The airframe, the capabilities of the autopilot Pixhawk 2.1, the sensor system and the data acquisition software, as well as the post-processing software, provide the basis for flight experiments and are described in detail. Two flights in a stable boundary-layer and a close comparison to a measurement tower and a Sodar system depict the accuracy of the wind speed and direction measurements, as well as the turbulence measurements. Mean values, variances, covariance, turbulent kinetic energy and the integral length scale agree well with measurements from a meteorological measurement tower. MASC-3 performs valuable measurements of stable boundary layers with high temporal resolution and supplements the measurements of meteorological towers and sodar systems. SN - 1424-8220 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31109010/The_Multi_Purpose_Airborne_Sensor_Carrier_MASC_3_for_Wind_and_Turbulence_Measurements_in_the_Atmospheric_Boundary_Layer_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=s19102292 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -