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The defensive Spiroplasma.
Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2019 04; 32:36-41.CO

Abstract

Defensive microbes are of great interest for their roles in arthropod health, disease transmission, and biocontrol efforts. Obligate bacterial passengers of arthropods, such as Spiroplasma, confer protection against the natural enemies of their hosts to improve their own fitness. Although known for less than a decade, Spiroplasma's defensive reach extends to diverse parasites, both microbial and multicellular. We provide an overview of known defensive phenotypes against nematodes, parasitoid wasps, and fungi, and highlight recent studies supporting the role of Spiroplasma-encoded ribosome-inactivating proteins in protection. With cellular features well-suited for life in the hemolymph, broad distribution among invertebrate hosts, and the capacity to repeatedly evolve vertical transmission, Spiroplasma may be uniquely equipped to form intimate, defensive associations to combat extracellular parasites. Along with insights into defensive mechanisms, recent significant advances have been made in male-killing - a phenotype with interesting evolutionary ties to defense. Finally, we look forward to an exciting decade using the genetic tools of Drosophila, and the rapidly-advancing tractability of Spiroplasma itself, to better understand mechanisms and evolution in defensive symbiosis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA. Electronic address: ballinger@biology.msstate.edu.Department of Biology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 2Y2, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31113629

Citation

Ballinger, Matthew J., and Steve J. Perlman. "The Defensive Spiroplasma." Current Opinion in Insect Science, vol. 32, 2019, pp. 36-41.
Ballinger MJ, Perlman SJ. The defensive Spiroplasma. Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2019;32:36-41.
Ballinger, M. J., & Perlman, S. J. (2019). The defensive Spiroplasma. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 32, 36-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cois.2018.10.004
Ballinger MJ, Perlman SJ. The Defensive Spiroplasma. Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2019;32:36-41. PubMed PMID: 31113629.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The defensive Spiroplasma. AU - Ballinger,Matthew J, AU - Perlman,Steve J, Y1 - 2018/10/23/ PY - 2018/09/18/received PY - 2018/10/11/revised PY - 2018/10/15/accepted PY - 2019/5/23/entrez PY - 2019/5/23/pubmed PY - 2020/2/23/medline SP - 36 EP - 41 JF - Current opinion in insect science JO - Curr Opin Insect Sci VL - 32 N2 - Defensive microbes are of great interest for their roles in arthropod health, disease transmission, and biocontrol efforts. Obligate bacterial passengers of arthropods, such as Spiroplasma, confer protection against the natural enemies of their hosts to improve their own fitness. Although known for less than a decade, Spiroplasma's defensive reach extends to diverse parasites, both microbial and multicellular. We provide an overview of known defensive phenotypes against nematodes, parasitoid wasps, and fungi, and highlight recent studies supporting the role of Spiroplasma-encoded ribosome-inactivating proteins in protection. With cellular features well-suited for life in the hemolymph, broad distribution among invertebrate hosts, and the capacity to repeatedly evolve vertical transmission, Spiroplasma may be uniquely equipped to form intimate, defensive associations to combat extracellular parasites. Along with insights into defensive mechanisms, recent significant advances have been made in male-killing - a phenotype with interesting evolutionary ties to defense. Finally, we look forward to an exciting decade using the genetic tools of Drosophila, and the rapidly-advancing tractability of Spiroplasma itself, to better understand mechanisms and evolution in defensive symbiosis. SN - 2214-5753 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31113629/The_defensive_Spiroplasma_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2214-5745(18)30073-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -