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Health outcomes of a high fructose intake: the importance of physical activity.
J Physiol 2019; 597(14):3561-3571JP

Abstract

Fructose metabolism is generally held to occur essentially in cells of the small bowel, the liver, and the kidneys expressing fructolytic enzymes (fructokinase, aldolase B and a triokinase). In these cells, fructose uptake and fructolysis are unregulated processes, resulting in the generation of intracellular triose phosphates proportionate to fructose intake. Triose phosphates are then processed into lactate, glucose and fatty acids to serve as metabolic substrates in other cells of the body. With small oral loads, fructose is mainly metabolized in the small bowel, while with larger loads fructose reaches the portal circulation and is largely extracted by the liver. A small portion, however, escapes liver extraction and is metabolized either in the kidneys or in other tissues through yet unspecified pathways. In sedentary subjects, consumption of a fructose-rich diet for several days stimulates hepatic de novo lipogenesis, increases intrahepatic fat and blood triglyceride concentrations, and impairs insulin effects on hepatic glucose production. All these effects can be prevented when high fructose intake is associated with increased levels of physical activity. There is also evidence that, during exercise, fructose carbons are efficiently transferred to skeletal muscle as glucose and lactate to be used for energy production. Glucose and lactate formed from fructose can also contribute to the re-synthesis of muscle glycogen after exercise. We therefore propose that the deleterious health effects of fructose are tightly related to an imbalance between fructose energy intake on one hand, and whole-body energy output related to a low physical activity on the other hand.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Cardiometabolic Center, Broye Hospital, Estavayer-le-lac, Switzerland.Department of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31116420

Citation

Tappy, Luc, and Robin Rosset. "Health Outcomes of a High Fructose Intake: the Importance of Physical Activity." The Journal of Physiology, vol. 597, no. 14, 2019, pp. 3561-3571.
Tappy L, Rosset R. Health outcomes of a high fructose intake: the importance of physical activity. J Physiol (Lond). 2019;597(14):3561-3571.
Tappy, L., & Rosset, R. (2019). Health outcomes of a high fructose intake: the importance of physical activity. The Journal of Physiology, 597(14), pp. 3561-3571. doi:10.1113/JP278246.
Tappy L, Rosset R. Health Outcomes of a High Fructose Intake: the Importance of Physical Activity. J Physiol (Lond). 2019;597(14):3561-3571. PubMed PMID: 31116420.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Health outcomes of a high fructose intake: the importance of physical activity. AU - Tappy,Luc, AU - Rosset,Robin, Y1 - 2019/06/09/ PY - 2019/05/05/received PY - 2019/05/08/accepted PY - 2019/5/23/pubmed PY - 2019/5/23/medline PY - 2019/5/23/entrez KW - de novo lipogenesis KW - exercise metabolism KW - exercise recovery KW - gluconeogenesis KW - lactate production SP - 3561 EP - 3571 JF - The Journal of physiology JO - J. Physiol. (Lond.) VL - 597 IS - 14 N2 - Fructose metabolism is generally held to occur essentially in cells of the small bowel, the liver, and the kidneys expressing fructolytic enzymes (fructokinase, aldolase B and a triokinase). In these cells, fructose uptake and fructolysis are unregulated processes, resulting in the generation of intracellular triose phosphates proportionate to fructose intake. Triose phosphates are then processed into lactate, glucose and fatty acids to serve as metabolic substrates in other cells of the body. With small oral loads, fructose is mainly metabolized in the small bowel, while with larger loads fructose reaches the portal circulation and is largely extracted by the liver. A small portion, however, escapes liver extraction and is metabolized either in the kidneys or in other tissues through yet unspecified pathways. In sedentary subjects, consumption of a fructose-rich diet for several days stimulates hepatic de novo lipogenesis, increases intrahepatic fat and blood triglyceride concentrations, and impairs insulin effects on hepatic glucose production. All these effects can be prevented when high fructose intake is associated with increased levels of physical activity. There is also evidence that, during exercise, fructose carbons are efficiently transferred to skeletal muscle as glucose and lactate to be used for energy production. Glucose and lactate formed from fructose can also contribute to the re-synthesis of muscle glycogen after exercise. We therefore propose that the deleterious health effects of fructose are tightly related to an imbalance between fructose energy intake on one hand, and whole-body energy output related to a low physical activity on the other hand. SN - 1469-7793 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31116420/Health_outcomes_of_a_high_fructose_intake:_the_importance_of_physical_activity L2 - https://doi.org/10.1113/JP278246 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -