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Snacking patterns among Chilean children and adolescents: is there potential for improvement?
Public Health Nutr. 2019 10; 22(15):2803-2812.PH

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine snacking patterns, food sources and nutrient profiles of snacks in low- and middle-income Chilean children and adolescents.

DESIGN

Cross-sectional. Dietary data were collected via 24 h food recalls. We determined the proportion of snackers, snacks per day and energy from top food and beverage groups consumed. We compared the nutrient profile (energy, sodium, total sugars and saturated fat) of snacks v. meals.

SETTING

South-east region of Chile.

PARTICIPANTS

Children and adolescents from two cohorts: the Food Environment Chilean Cohort (n 958, 4-6 years old) and the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study (n 752, 12-14 years old).

RESULTS

With a mean of 2·30 (se 0·03) snacks consumed daily, 95·2 % of children and 89·9 % of adolescents reported at least one snacking event. Snacks contributed on average 1506 kJ/d (360 kcal/d) in snacking children and 2218 kJ/d (530 kcal/d) in snacking adolescents (29·0 and 27·4 % daily energy contribution, respectively). Grain-based desserts, salty snacks, other sweets and desserts, dairy foods and cereal-based foods contributed the most energy from snacks in the overall sample. For meals, cereal-based foods, dairy beverages, meat and meat substitutes, oils and fats, and fruits and vegetables were the top energy contributors.

CONCLUSIONS

Widespread snacking among Chilean youth provides over a quarter of their daily energy and includes foods generally considered high in energy, saturated fat, sodium and/or total sugars. Future research should explore whether snacking behaviours change as the result of Chile's national regulations on food marketing, labelling and school environments.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Global Food Research Program, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, 123 W Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA. School of Nutrition, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Macul, Chile.Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Macul, Chile.Global Food Research Program, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, 123 W Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA.Global Food Research Program, Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina, 123 W Franklin Street, Chapel Hill, NC 27516, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31124768

Citation

Jensen, Melissa L., et al. "Snacking Patterns Among Chilean Children and Adolescents: Is There Potential for Improvement?" Public Health Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 15, 2019, pp. 2803-2812.
Jensen ML, Corvalán C, Reyes M, et al. Snacking patterns among Chilean children and adolescents: is there potential for improvement? Public Health Nutr. 2019;22(15):2803-2812.
Jensen, M. L., Corvalán, C., Reyes, M., Popkin, B. M., & Taillie, L. S. (2019). Snacking patterns among Chilean children and adolescents: is there potential for improvement? Public Health Nutrition, 22(15), 2803-2812. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980019000971
Jensen ML, et al. Snacking Patterns Among Chilean Children and Adolescents: Is There Potential for Improvement. Public Health Nutr. 2019;22(15):2803-2812. PubMed PMID: 31124768.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Snacking patterns among Chilean children and adolescents: is there potential for improvement? AU - Jensen,Melissa L, AU - Corvalán,Camila, AU - Reyes,Marcela, AU - Popkin,Barry M, AU - Taillie,Lindsey Smith, Y1 - 2019/05/24/ PY - 2019/5/28/pubmed PY - 2020/8/26/medline PY - 2019/5/25/entrez KW - Adolescents KW - Children KW - Chile KW - Snacking SP - 2803 EP - 2812 JF - Public health nutrition JO - Public Health Nutr VL - 22 IS - 15 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine snacking patterns, food sources and nutrient profiles of snacks in low- and middle-income Chilean children and adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. Dietary data were collected via 24 h food recalls. We determined the proportion of snackers, snacks per day and energy from top food and beverage groups consumed. We compared the nutrient profile (energy, sodium, total sugars and saturated fat) of snacks v. meals. SETTING: South-east region of Chile. PARTICIPANTS: Children and adolescents from two cohorts: the Food Environment Chilean Cohort (n 958, 4-6 years old) and the Growth and Obesity Cohort Study (n 752, 12-14 years old). RESULTS: With a mean of 2·30 (se 0·03) snacks consumed daily, 95·2 % of children and 89·9 % of adolescents reported at least one snacking event. Snacks contributed on average 1506 kJ/d (360 kcal/d) in snacking children and 2218 kJ/d (530 kcal/d) in snacking adolescents (29·0 and 27·4 % daily energy contribution, respectively). Grain-based desserts, salty snacks, other sweets and desserts, dairy foods and cereal-based foods contributed the most energy from snacks in the overall sample. For meals, cereal-based foods, dairy beverages, meat and meat substitutes, oils and fats, and fruits and vegetables were the top energy contributors. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread snacking among Chilean youth provides over a quarter of their daily energy and includes foods generally considered high in energy, saturated fat, sodium and/or total sugars. Future research should explore whether snacking behaviours change as the result of Chile's national regulations on food marketing, labelling and school environments. SN - 1475-2727 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31124768/Snacking_patterns_among_Chilean_children_and_adolescents:_is_there_potential_for_improvement L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980019000971/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -