Role of SNAREs in Atopic Dermatitis-Related Cytokine Secretion and Skin-Nerve Communication.J Invest Dermatol 2019JI
The role of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors in atopic dermatitis (AD) is unknown. This study identifies the function of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptor in AD-related cytokine secretion and epidermis-nerve communication. Herein, we report that various cytokines were simultaneously upregulated and coreleased in innate immunity-activated primary human keratinocytes. AD-related cytokines thymic stromal lymphopoietin, endothelin-1, and inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α activated distinct but overlapping sensory neurons. Tumor necrosis factor-α potentiated thymic stromal lymphopoietin-induced Ca2+-influx, whereas endothelin-1 caused itch-selective B-type natriuretic peptide release. In primary human keratinocytes, B-type natriuretic peptide upregulated genes promoting dermatological and neuroinflammatory diseases and conditions. VAMP3, SNAP-29, and syntaxin 4 proved important in driving cytokine release from primary human keratinocytes. Depletion of VAMP3 inhibited nearly all the cytokine release including thymic stromal lymphopoietin and endothelin-1. Accordingly, VAMP3 co-occurred with endothelin-1 in the skins of patients with AD. Our study pinpoints the pivotal role of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors in mediating cytokine secretion related to AD. VAMP3 is identified as a suitable target for developing broad-spectrum anticytokine therapeutics for controlling itch and atopic skin inflammation.