Meta-analysis of the positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factor structure.J Psychiatr Res. 2019 08; 115:113-120.JP
A meta-analysis of the results of 45 factor analyses (n = 22,812) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was conducted. Meta-analyses of the PANSS was conducted using both a co-occurrence similarity matrix and reproduced correlations. Both methods produced similar results. Five factors (Positive Symptoms, Negative Symptoms, Disorganization, Affect and Resistance) emerged clearly across both analyses. The factors and the items defining them were Positive Symptoms (P1 Delusions, G9 Unusual thought content, P3 Hallucinatory behavior, P6 Suspiciousness and persecution, P5 Grandiosity), Negative Symptoms (N2 Emotional withdrawal, N1 Blunted affect, N4 Passive apathetic social withdrawal, N6 Lack of spontaneity, N3 Poor rapport, G7 Motor retardation, G16 Active social avoidance), Disorganization often termed Cognitive (P2 Conceptual disorganization, G11 Poor attention, N5 Difficulty in abstract thinking, G13 Disturbance of volition, N7 Stereotyped thinking, G5 Mannerisms/posturing, G15 Preoccupation, G10 Disorientation), Affect often termed Depression-Anxiety (G2 Anxiety, G6 Depression, G3 Guilt feelings, G4 Tension, G1 Somatic concern) and a small fifth factor that might be characterized as Resistance or Excitement/Activity (P7 Hostility, G14 Poor impulse control, P4 Excitement, G8 Uncooperativeness). Items G1, G4, G10, P5, G5, G15 may not be core items for the PANSS factors and G12 lack of judgment is not a core item. Results of the PANSS meta-analyses were relatively similar to those for meta-analysis of both the BPRS and BPRS-E all of which contain the original 18 BPRS items. The PANSS is distinguished by a much larger number of items to clearly define and measure Negative Symptoms as well as a sufficient number of items to much more clearly identify a Disorganization factor than the BPRS or BPRS-E.