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Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 5:CD001176CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Pouchitis occurs in approximately 50% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis (UC).

OBJECTIVES

The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of medical therapies for prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis.

SEARCH METHODS

We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL from inception to 25 July 2018. We also searched references, trials registers, and conference proceedings.

SELECTION CRITERIA

Randomized controlled trials of prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis in adults who underwent IPAA for UC were considered for inclusion.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two authors independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE. The primary outcome was clinical improvement or remission in participants with acute or chronic pouchitis, or the proportion of participants with no episodes of pouchitis after IPAA. Adverse events (AEs) was a secondary outcome. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each dichotomous outcome.

MAIN RESULTS

Fifteen studies (547 participants) were included. Four studies assessed treatment of acute pouchitis. Five studies assessed treatment of chronic pouchitis. Six studies assessed prevention of pouchitis. Three studies were low risk of bias. Three studies were high risk of bias and the other studies were unclear.Acute pouchitis: All ciprofloxacin participants (7/7) achieved remission at two weeks compared to 33% (3/9) of metronidazole participants (RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.35, very low certainty evidence). No ciprofloxacin participants (0/7) had an AE compared to 33% (3/9) of metronidazole participants (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.98; very low certainty evidence). AEs included vomiting, dysgeusia or transient peripheral neuropathy. Forty-three per cent (6/14) of metronidazole participants achieved remission at 6 weeks compared to 50% (6/12) of budesonide enema participants (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.96, very low certainty evidence). Fifty per cent (7/14) of metronidazole participants improved clinically at 6 weeks compared to 58% (7/12) of budesonide enema participants (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.74, very low certainty evidence). Fifty-seven per cent (8/14) of metronidazole participants had an AE compared to 25% (3/12) of budesonide enema participants (RR 2.29, 95% CI 0.78 to 6.73, very low certainty evidence). AEs included anorexia, nausea, headache, asthenia, metallic taste, vomiting, paraesthesia, and depression. Twenty-five per cent (2/8) of rifaximin participants achieved remission at 4 weeks compared to 0% (0/10) of placebo participants (RR 6.11, 95% CI 0.33 to 111.71, very low certainty evidence). Thirty-eight per cent (3/8) of rifaximin participants improved clinically at 4 weeks compared to 30% (3/10) of placebo participants (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.34 to 4.60, very low certainty evidence). Seventy-five per cent (6/8) of rifaximin participants had an AE compared to 50% (5/10) of placebo participants (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.72 to 3.14, very low certainty evidence). AEs included diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, proctalgia, vomiting, thirst, candida, upper respiratory tract infection, increased hepatic enzyme, and cluster headache. Ten per cent (1/10) of Lactobacillus GG participants improved clinically at 12 weeks compared to 0% (0/10) of placebo participants (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.14 to 65.90, very low certainty evidence).Chronic pouchitis: Eighty-five per cent (34/40) of VSL#3 participants maintained remission at 9 to 12 months compared to 3% (1/36) of placebo participants (RR 20.24, 95% CI 4.28 to 95.81, 2 studies; low certainty evidence). Two per cent (1/40) of VSL#3 participants had an AE compared to 0% (0/36) of placebo participants (RR 2.43, 95% CI 0.11 to 55.89; low certainty evidence). AEs included abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhea. Fifty per cent (3/6) of adalimumab patients achieved clinical improvement at 4 weeks compared to 43% (3/7) of placebo participants (RR, 1.17, 95% CI 0.36 to 3.76, low certainty evidence). Sixty per cent (6/10) of glutamine participants maintained remission at 3 weeks compared to 33% (3/9) of butyrate participants (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.63 to 5.16, very low certainty evidence). Forty-five per cent (9/20) of patients treated with bismuth carbomer foam enema improved clinically at 3 weeks compared to 45% (9/20) of placebo participants (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.98, very low certainty evidence). Twenty-five per cent (5/20) of participants in the bismuth carbomer foam enema group had an AE compared to 35% (7/20) of placebo participants (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.88, very low certainty evidence). Adverse events included diarrhea, worsening symptoms, cramping, sinusitis, and abdominal pain.

PREVENTION

At 12 months, 90% (18/20) of VSL#3 participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis compared to 60% (12/20) of placebo participants (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.21, low certainty evidence). Another study found 100% (16/16) of VSL#3 participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis at 12 months compared to 92% (11/12) of the no treatment control group (RR 1.10, 95% 0.89 to 1.36, very low certainty evidence). Eighty-six per cent (6/7) of Bifidobacterium longum participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis at 6 months compared to 60% (3/5) of placebo participants (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.11, very low certainty evidence). Eleven per cent (1/9) of Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis at 24 months compared to 50% (4/8) of placebo participants (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.60, very low certainty evidence). Forty-six per cent (43/94) of allopurinol participants had no episodes of pouchitis at 24 months compared to 43% (39/90) of placebo participants (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.46; low certainty evidence). Eighty-one per cent (21/26) of tinidazole participants had no episodes of pouchitis over 12 months compared to 58% (7/12) of placebo participants (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.31, very low certainty evidence).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

The effects of antibiotics, probiotics and other interventions for treating and preventing pouchitis are uncertain. Well designed, adequately powered studies are needed to determine the optimal therapy for the treatment and prevention of pouchitis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31136680

Citation

Nguyen, Nghia, et al. "Treatment and Prevention of Pouchitis After Ileal Pouch-anal Anastomosis for Chronic Ulcerative Colitis." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 5, 2019, p. CD001176.
Nguyen N, Zhang B, Holubar SD, et al. Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019;5:CD001176.
Nguyen, N., Zhang, B., Holubar, S. D., Pardi, D. S., & Singh, S. (2019). Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5, p. CD001176. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001176.pub4.
Nguyen N, et al. Treatment and Prevention of Pouchitis After Ileal Pouch-anal Anastomosis for Chronic Ulcerative Colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 05 28;5:CD001176. PubMed PMID: 31136680.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Treatment and prevention of pouchitis after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for chronic ulcerative colitis. AU - Nguyen,Nghia, AU - Zhang,Bing, AU - Holubar,Stefan D, AU - Pardi,Darrell S, AU - Singh,Siddharth, Y1 - 2019/05/28/ PY - 2020/05/28/pmc-release PY - 2019/5/29/pubmed PY - 2019/6/18/medline PY - 2019/5/29/entrez SP - CD001176 EP - CD001176 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev VL - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Pouchitis occurs in approximately 50% of patients following ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for chronic ulcerative colitis (UC). OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the efficacy and safety of medical therapies for prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and CENTRAL from inception to 25 July 2018. We also searched references, trials registers, and conference proceedings. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials of prevention or treatment of acute or chronic pouchitis in adults who underwent IPAA for UC were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently screened studies for eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE. The primary outcome was clinical improvement or remission in participants with acute or chronic pouchitis, or the proportion of participants with no episodes of pouchitis after IPAA. Adverse events (AEs) was a secondary outcome. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each dichotomous outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Fifteen studies (547 participants) were included. Four studies assessed treatment of acute pouchitis. Five studies assessed treatment of chronic pouchitis. Six studies assessed prevention of pouchitis. Three studies were low risk of bias. Three studies were high risk of bias and the other studies were unclear.Acute pouchitis: All ciprofloxacin participants (7/7) achieved remission at two weeks compared to 33% (3/9) of metronidazole participants (RR 2.68, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.35, very low certainty evidence). No ciprofloxacin participants (0/7) had an AE compared to 33% (3/9) of metronidazole participants (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.98; very low certainty evidence). AEs included vomiting, dysgeusia or transient peripheral neuropathy. Forty-three per cent (6/14) of metronidazole participants achieved remission at 6 weeks compared to 50% (6/12) of budesonide enema participants (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.96, very low certainty evidence). Fifty per cent (7/14) of metronidazole participants improved clinically at 6 weeks compared to 58% (7/12) of budesonide enema participants (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.74, very low certainty evidence). Fifty-seven per cent (8/14) of metronidazole participants had an AE compared to 25% (3/12) of budesonide enema participants (RR 2.29, 95% CI 0.78 to 6.73, very low certainty evidence). AEs included anorexia, nausea, headache, asthenia, metallic taste, vomiting, paraesthesia, and depression. Twenty-five per cent (2/8) of rifaximin participants achieved remission at 4 weeks compared to 0% (0/10) of placebo participants (RR 6.11, 95% CI 0.33 to 111.71, very low certainty evidence). Thirty-eight per cent (3/8) of rifaximin participants improved clinically at 4 weeks compared to 30% (3/10) of placebo participants (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.34 to 4.60, very low certainty evidence). Seventy-five per cent (6/8) of rifaximin participants had an AE compared to 50% (5/10) of placebo participants (RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.72 to 3.14, very low certainty evidence). AEs included diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, proctalgia, vomiting, thirst, candida, upper respiratory tract infection, increased hepatic enzyme, and cluster headache. Ten per cent (1/10) of Lactobacillus GG participants improved clinically at 12 weeks compared to 0% (0/10) of placebo participants (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.14 to 65.90, very low certainty evidence).Chronic pouchitis: Eighty-five per cent (34/40) of VSL#3 participants maintained remission at 9 to 12 months compared to 3% (1/36) of placebo participants (RR 20.24, 95% CI 4.28 to 95.81, 2 studies; low certainty evidence). Two per cent (1/40) of VSL#3 participants had an AE compared to 0% (0/36) of placebo participants (RR 2.43, 95% CI 0.11 to 55.89; low certainty evidence). AEs included abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhea. Fifty per cent (3/6) of adalimumab patients achieved clinical improvement at 4 weeks compared to 43% (3/7) of placebo participants (RR, 1.17, 95% CI 0.36 to 3.76, low certainty evidence). Sixty per cent (6/10) of glutamine participants maintained remission at 3 weeks compared to 33% (3/9) of butyrate participants (RR 1.80, 95% CI 0.63 to 5.16, very low certainty evidence). Forty-five per cent (9/20) of patients treated with bismuth carbomer foam enema improved clinically at 3 weeks compared to 45% (9/20) of placebo participants (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.98, very low certainty evidence). Twenty-five per cent (5/20) of participants in the bismuth carbomer foam enema group had an AE compared to 35% (7/20) of placebo participants (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.88, very low certainty evidence). Adverse events included diarrhea, worsening symptoms, cramping, sinusitis, and abdominal pain. PREVENTION: At 12 months, 90% (18/20) of VSL#3 participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis compared to 60% (12/20) of placebo participants (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.21, low certainty evidence). Another study found 100% (16/16) of VSL#3 participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis at 12 months compared to 92% (11/12) of the no treatment control group (RR 1.10, 95% 0.89 to 1.36, very low certainty evidence). Eighty-six per cent (6/7) of Bifidobacterium longum participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis at 6 months compared to 60% (3/5) of placebo participants (RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.66 to 3.11, very low certainty evidence). Eleven per cent (1/9) of Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI participants had no episodes of acute pouchitis at 24 months compared to 50% (4/8) of placebo participants (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.60, very low certainty evidence). Forty-six per cent (43/94) of allopurinol participants had no episodes of pouchitis at 24 months compared to 43% (39/90) of placebo participants (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.46; low certainty evidence). Eighty-one per cent (21/26) of tinidazole participants had no episodes of pouchitis over 12 months compared to 58% (7/12) of placebo participants (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.31, very low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The effects of antibiotics, probiotics and other interventions for treating and preventing pouchitis are uncertain. Well designed, adequately powered studies are needed to determine the optimal therapy for the treatment and prevention of pouchitis. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31136680/Treatment_and_prevention_of_pouchitis_after_ileal_pouch-anal_anastomosis_for_chronic_ulcerative_colitis L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001176.pub4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -