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An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection.
Oecologia. 2019 Jun; 190(2):367-374.O

Abstract

Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada.Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. Department of Biology, University of Regina, 3737 Wascana Parkway, Regina, SK, S4S 0A2, Canada. Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada.Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, USA.Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. b.smit@ru.ac.za.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31139944

Citation

Bailey, Lauren A., et al. "An Experimental Test of the Allotonic Frequency Hypothesis to Isolate the Effects of Light Pollution On Bat Prey Selection." Oecologia, vol. 190, no. 2, 2019, pp. 367-374.
Bailey LA, Brigham RM, Bohn SJ, et al. An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection. Oecologia. 2019;190(2):367-374.
Bailey, L. A., Brigham, R. M., Bohn, S. J., Boyles, J. G., & Smit, B. (2019). An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection. Oecologia, 190(2), 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04417-w
Bailey LA, et al. An Experimental Test of the Allotonic Frequency Hypothesis to Isolate the Effects of Light Pollution On Bat Prey Selection. Oecologia. 2019;190(2):367-374. PubMed PMID: 31139944.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection. AU - Bailey,Lauren A, AU - Brigham,R Mark, AU - Bohn,Shelby J, AU - Boyles,Justin G, AU - Smit,Ben, Y1 - 2019/05/28/ PY - 2018/12/04/received PY - 2019/05/07/accepted PY - 2019/5/30/pubmed PY - 2019/9/24/medline PY - 2019/5/30/entrez KW - Allotonic KW - Bat diets KW - Light pollution KW - Syntonic KW - Tympanate insects SP - 367 EP - 374 JF - Oecologia JO - Oecologia VL - 190 IS - 2 N2 - Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet. SN - 1432-1939 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31139944/An_experimental_test_of_the_allotonic_frequency_hypothesis_to_isolate_the_effects_of_light_pollution_on_bat_prey_selection_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-019-04417-w DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -