Lipid Peroxidation and GPX4 Inhibition Are Common Causes for Myofibroblast Differentiation and Ferroptosis.DNA Cell Biol. 2019 Jul; 38(7):725-733.DC
Ferroptosis is a new form of regulated cell death. Fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Utilizing HFL1 cell line treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), we investigated the relationship between ferroptosis and pulmonary fibrosis, and the function of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in them. The results indicated that α-smooth muscle actin and collagen I (COL I) mRNA expression levels increased significantly from 24 h after TGF-β1-treatment, and further rose after TGF-β1+erastin treatment. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde were increased, and the levels of GPX4 mRNA and protein were reduced after treatment with TGF-β1, and all these were magnified after TGF-β1+erastin treatment. All these changes induced by TGF-β1 and erastin can be recovered by Fer-1 treatment. The cell viability rate was decreased significantly when treated with TGF-β1+erastin, but no obvious variation of cell viability was found in TGF-β1-treated group and in other groups, suggesting that ROS, lipid peroxidation, and GPX4 inhibition are not sufficient conditions for ferroptosis. Collectively, our study reveals that ROS, lipid peroxidation, and GPX4 play important roles in pulmonary fibrosis and ferroptosis induced by erastin. Erastin promoted fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation by increasing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting the expression of GPX4. Fer-1 may inhibit pulmonary fibrosis and ferroptosis through suppressing lipid peroxidation and enhancing GPX4 expression.