A Cross-Sectional Study to Assess the Prevalence of Adult Thyroid Dysfunction Disorders in Jordan.Thyroid. 2019 08; 29(8):1052-1059.T
Background: Insufficient production of thyroid hormones results in hypothyroidism, while overproduction results in hyperthyroidism. These are common adult disorders, with hypothyroidism more common in the elderly. Jordan has had past problems with dietary iodine deficiency but there are no published studies assessing the population prevalence of these disorders in the Arab Middle East. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three representative areas of Jordan. There were 7085 participants with a mean age of 40.8 years. Participants completed a questionnaire and had blood taken for thyroid analysis. Results:Hypothyroidism: The prevalence of any hypothyroidism (already diagnosed and/or identified by blood testing) was 17.2% in females and 9.1% in males. Undiagnosed prevalence was 8% and 6.2% for females and males, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as high serum thyrotropin (TSH) and normal serum-free thyroxine (fT4), was 5.98% among females and 4.40% among males. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism, defined as high TSH and low fT4, was 2.00% among females and 1.80% among males. Only 53.5% (55.3% for females, 42.1% males) of those previously diagnosed with hypothyroidism had TSH levels within the appropriate range. Hyperthyroidism: The prevalence of any hyperthyroidism (already diagnosed and/or identified by blood testing) was 1.8% in females and 2.27% in males. The undiagnosed prevalence was 1.4% and 2.1% for females and males, respectively. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism (low TSH and normal fT4) was 1.20% and 1.80% among males and females accordingly. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism (low TSH and high fT4) was 0.2% among females and 0.3% among males. About 85.7% (83.3% for females, 100% males) of those previously diagnosed with hyperthyroidism had TSH levels within the appropriate range. Conclusions: The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among adult females and males in Jordan is very high compared with international statistics, particularly in the rates of undiagnosed cases. This indicates the need for further assessment of the value of screening for adult hypothyroidism in Jordan.