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Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide: An Overview.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019; 2007:1-8.MM

Abstract

In addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently emerged as the novel gasotransmitter involved in the regulation of the nervous system, cardiovascular functions, inflammatory response, gastrointestinal system, and renal function. H2S is synthesized from L-cysteine and/or L-homocysteine by cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, and cysteine aminotransferase together with 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. In addition, H2S is enzymatically metabolized in mitochondria by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, persulfide dioxygenase, and sulfite oxidase to thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate which enables to regulate its level by factors such as oxygen pressure, mitochondria density, or efficacy of mitochondrial electron transport. H2S modifies protein structure and function through the so-called sulfuration or persulfidation, that is, conversion of cysteine thiol (-SH) to persulfide (-SSH) groups. This, as well as other signaling mechanisms, is partially mediated by more oxidized H2S-derived species, polysulfides (H2Sn). In addition, H2S is able to react with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to form other signaling molecules such as thionitrous acid (HSNO), nitrosopersulfide (SSNO-), and nitroxyl (HNO). All H2S-synthesizing enzymes are expressed in the vascular wall, and H2S has been demonstrated to regulate vascular tone, endothelial barrier permeability, angiogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis, and inflammatory reaction. H2S-modifying therapies are promising approach for diseases such as arterial hypertension, diabetic angiopathy, and atherosclerosis.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University, Lublin, Poland. jerzy.beltowski@umlub.pl.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31148102

Citation

Bełtowski, Jerzy. "Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide: an Overview." Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), vol. 2007, 2019, pp. 1-8.
Bełtowski J. Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide: An Overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;2007:1-8.
Bełtowski, J. (2019). Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide: An Overview. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2007, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9528-8_1
Bełtowski J. Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide: an Overview. Methods Mol Biol. 2019;2007:1-8. PubMed PMID: 31148102.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Mechanisms of Hydrogen Sulfide: An Overview. A1 - Bełtowski,Jerzy, PY - 2019/6/1/entrez PY - 2019/5/31/pubmed PY - 2020/3/13/medline KW - Arterial hypertension KW - Atherosclerosis KW - Gasotransmitters KW - Hydrogen sulfide KW - Polysulfides KW - Vascular tone SP - 1 EP - 8 JF - Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) JO - Methods Mol Biol VL - 2007 N2 - In addition to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has recently emerged as the novel gasotransmitter involved in the regulation of the nervous system, cardiovascular functions, inflammatory response, gastrointestinal system, and renal function. H2S is synthesized from L-cysteine and/or L-homocysteine by cystathionine β-synthase, cystathionine γ-lyase, and cysteine aminotransferase together with 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase. In addition, H2S is enzymatically metabolized in mitochondria by sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase, persulfide dioxygenase, and sulfite oxidase to thiosulfate, sulfite, and sulfate which enables to regulate its level by factors such as oxygen pressure, mitochondria density, or efficacy of mitochondrial electron transport. H2S modifies protein structure and function through the so-called sulfuration or persulfidation, that is, conversion of cysteine thiol (-SH) to persulfide (-SSH) groups. This, as well as other signaling mechanisms, is partially mediated by more oxidized H2S-derived species, polysulfides (H2Sn). In addition, H2S is able to react with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to form other signaling molecules such as thionitrous acid (HSNO), nitrosopersulfide (SSNO-), and nitroxyl (HNO). All H2S-synthesizing enzymes are expressed in the vascular wall, and H2S has been demonstrated to regulate vascular tone, endothelial barrier permeability, angiogenesis, vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis, and inflammatory reaction. H2S-modifying therapies are promising approach for diseases such as arterial hypertension, diabetic angiopathy, and atherosclerosis. SN - 1940-6029 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31148102/Synthesis_Metabolism_and_Signaling_Mechanisms_of_Hydrogen_Sulfide:_An_Overview_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9528-8_1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -