Cone-beam computed tomography-guided three-dimensional evaluation of treatment effectiveness of the Frog appliance.Korean J Orthod 2019; 49(3):161-169KJ
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Frog appliance in three dimensions by using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.
Forty patients (21 boys and 19 girls), averaged 11.7 years old, with an Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion were included in our study. They had either late mixed dentition or early permanent dentition, and the maxillary second molars had not yet erupted. All patients underwent CBCT before and after the treatment for measuring changes in the maxillary first molars, second premolars, central incisors, and profile. Paired-samples t-test was used to compare the mean difference in each variable before treatment and after the first phase of treatment.
The maxillary first molars were effectively distalized by 4.25 mm (p < 0.001) and 3.53 mm (p < 0.05) in the dental crown and root apex, respectively. The tipping increased by 2.25°, but the difference was not significant. Moreover the teeth moved buccally by 0.84 mm (p < 0.05) and 2.87 mm (p < 0.01) in the mesiobuccal and distobuccal cusps, respectively, whereas no significant changes occurred in the root apex. Regarding the anchorage parts, the angle of the maxillary central incisor's long axis to the sella-nasion plane increased by 2.76° (p < 0.05) and the distance from the upper lip to the esthetic plane decreased by 0.52 mm (p = 0.01).
The Frog appliance effectively distalized the maxillary molars with an acceptable degree of tipping, distobuccal rotation, and buccal crown torque, with only slight anchorage loss. Furthermore, CBCT image demonstrated that it is a simple and reliable method for three-dimensional analysis.