12-Hydroxy-Jasmonoyl-l-Isoleucine Is an Active Jasmonate That Signals through CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 and Contributes to the Wound Response in Arabidopsis.Plant Cell Physiol. 2019 Oct 01; 60(10):2152-2166.PC
12-hydroxy-jasmonoyl-isoleucine (12OH-JA-Ile) is a metabolite in the catabolic pathway of the plant hormone jasmonate, and is synthesized by the cytochrome P450 subclade 94 enzymes. Contrary to the well-established function of jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) as the endogenous bioactive form of jasmonate, the function of 12OH-JA-Ile is unclear. Here, the potential role of 12OH-JA-Ile in jasmonate signaling and wound response was investigated. Exogenous application of 12OH-JA-Ile mimicked several JA-Ile effects including marker gene expression, anthocyanin accumulation and trichome induction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome-wide transcriptomics and untargeted metabolite analyses showed large overlaps between those affected by 12OH-JA-Ile and JA-Ile. 12OH-JA-Ile signaling was blocked by mutation in CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1. Increased anthocyanin accumulation by 12OH-JA-Ile was additionally observed in tomato and sorghum, and was disrupted by the COI1 defect in tomato jai1 mutant. In silico ligand docking predicted that 12OH-JA-Ile can maintain many of the key interactions with COI1-JAZ1 residues identified earlier by crystal structure studies using JA-Ile as ligand. Genetic alternation of jasmonate metabolic pathways in Arabidopsis to deplete both JA-Ile and 12OH-JA-Ile displayed enhanced jasmonate deficient wound phenotypes and was more susceptible to insect herbivory than that depleted in only JA-Ile. Conversely, mutants overaccumulating 12OH-JA-Ile showed intensified wound responses compared with wild type with similar JA-Ile content. These data are indicative of 12OH-JA-Ile functioning as an active jasmonate signal and contributing to wound and defense response in higher plants.