Subcutaneous nicotine delivery via needle-free jet injection: A porcine model.J Control Release 2019; 306:83-88JC
Subcutaneous delivery of nicotine was performed using a novel electrically-operated needle-free jet injector, and compared to hypodermic needle delivery in a porcine model. Nicotine was delivered as a single, one-milligram dose into the abdominal skin, formulated as a 50 microliter aqueous solution. Plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine, its main metabolite, were then monitored over 2 h, following which the injection site was excised for histological examination. No irritation or tissue damage were found at the injection sites, and the jet-injected nicotine exhibited comparable absorption into the systemic circulation to that injected using a conventional needle and syringe. The needle-free jet injection of nicotine is a promising and well tolerated method. The data presented from this porcine model will support a first in human trial towards a new promising nicotine replacement therapy.