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The remedial effect of Thymus vulgaris extract against lead toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, immunosuppression, and hematological disorders in rats.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Aug; 26(22):22736-22746.ES

Abstract

The Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) has been used in foods for the flavor, aroma, and preservation and in folk medicines. The objective of the present work was to determine the antioxidant and protective effects of T. vulgaris extract against lead (Pb)-intoxicated rats. A thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley were randomly assigned into 4 equal groups and treated for six weeks as follows: group I (GP-I), served as negative control; GP-II, -III, and -IV received either Pb acetate in drinking water (500 mg/L), T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage or Pb acetate with T. vulgaris extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected at the end of the study week 6 to measure the hepatic and renal biochemical markers, complete blood count alongside the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ. Additionally, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected for histopathology as well as to measure the antioxidant-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) alongside the lipid peroxidation marker, malonaldehyde (MDA). The results indicated that Pb toxicity increased the serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, whereas IL-10 and IFN-γ were reduced. The results showed disturbed liver and renal functions; increased serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine, and urea; and decreased total protein, albumin, and calcium. The GSH, Gpx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased in the Pb-administrated group, while MDA was increased. However, regarding the hepatorenal markers, those animals treated with T. vulgaris alone did not induce any significant changes. Moreover, the combined treatment with T. vulgaris extract together with Pb showed significant improvement in Pb-induced toxicity in all the tested parameters compared to the negative control group. We investigated the potential protective effects of the medicinal plant T. vulgaris in vivo, since there are no publications that address the potential protective effect of this leaf extract against Pb-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Our studies concluded that the T. vulgaris extract reduces Pb overload in hepatorenal tissues, and that this has a potential immunomodulatory role, antioxidant activity, and a protective effect against Pb toxicity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia. dr_elboshy@yahoo.com. Clinical Pathology Department, Fac. Vet. Med, Mansoura University Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt. dr_elboshy@yahoo.com.Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.Laboratory Medicine Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science, Umm al Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Al Abdeyah, Makkah, 7607, Saudi Arabia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31172438

Citation

El-Boshy, Mohamed E., et al. "The Remedial Effect of Thymus Vulgaris Extract Against Lead Toxicity-induced Oxidative Stress, Hepatorenal Damage, Immunosuppression, and Hematological Disorders in Rats." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 26, no. 22, 2019, pp. 22736-22746.
El-Boshy ME, Refaat B, Qasem AH, et al. The remedial effect of Thymus vulgaris extract against lead toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, immunosuppression, and hematological disorders in rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(22):22736-22746.
El-Boshy, M. E., Refaat, B., Qasem, A. H., Khan, A., Ghaith, M., Almasmoum, H., Mahbub, A., & Almaimani, R. A. (2019). The remedial effect of Thymus vulgaris extract against lead toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, immunosuppression, and hematological disorders in rats. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 26(22), 22736-22746. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05562-8
El-Boshy ME, et al. The Remedial Effect of Thymus Vulgaris Extract Against Lead Toxicity-induced Oxidative Stress, Hepatorenal Damage, Immunosuppression, and Hematological Disorders in Rats. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019;26(22):22736-22746. PubMed PMID: 31172438.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The remedial effect of Thymus vulgaris extract against lead toxicity-induced oxidative stress, hepatorenal damage, immunosuppression, and hematological disorders in rats. AU - El-Boshy,Mohamed E, AU - Refaat,Bassem, AU - Qasem,Ahmed H, AU - Khan,Anmar, AU - Ghaith,Mazen, AU - Almasmoum,Hussain, AU - Mahbub,Amani, AU - Almaimani,Riyad A, Y1 - 2019/06/06/ PY - 2018/09/03/received PY - 2019/05/23/accepted PY - 2019/6/7/pubmed PY - 2019/9/29/medline PY - 2019/6/8/entrez KW - Antioxidants KW - Hematology KW - Hepatorenal KW - Immunomodulatory KW - Lead KW - Rats KW - Thymus vulgaris SP - 22736 EP - 22746 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 26 IS - 22 N2 - The Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) has been used in foods for the flavor, aroma, and preservation and in folk medicines. The objective of the present work was to determine the antioxidant and protective effects of T. vulgaris extract against lead (Pb)-intoxicated rats. A thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley were randomly assigned into 4 equal groups and treated for six weeks as follows: group I (GP-I), served as negative control; GP-II, -III, and -IV received either Pb acetate in drinking water (500 mg/L), T. vulgaris extract (500 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage or Pb acetate with T. vulgaris extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected at the end of the study week 6 to measure the hepatic and renal biochemical markers, complete blood count alongside the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ. Additionally, liver and kidney tissue specimens were collected for histopathology as well as to measure the antioxidant-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) alongside the lipid peroxidation marker, malonaldehyde (MDA). The results indicated that Pb toxicity increased the serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, whereas IL-10 and IFN-γ were reduced. The results showed disturbed liver and renal functions; increased serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, creatinine, and urea; and decreased total protein, albumin, and calcium. The GSH, Gpx, and CAT levels were significantly decreased in the Pb-administrated group, while MDA was increased. However, regarding the hepatorenal markers, those animals treated with T. vulgaris alone did not induce any significant changes. Moreover, the combined treatment with T. vulgaris extract together with Pb showed significant improvement in Pb-induced toxicity in all the tested parameters compared to the negative control group. We investigated the potential protective effects of the medicinal plant T. vulgaris in vivo, since there are no publications that address the potential protective effect of this leaf extract against Pb-induced hepatorenal toxicity. Our studies concluded that the T. vulgaris extract reduces Pb overload in hepatorenal tissues, and that this has a potential immunomodulatory role, antioxidant activity, and a protective effect against Pb toxicity. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31172438/The_remedial_effect_of_Thymus_vulgaris_extract_against_lead_toxicity_induced_oxidative_stress_hepatorenal_damage_immunosuppression_and_hematological_disorders_in_rats_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -