Serious Selenium Deficiency in the Serum of Patients with Kashin-Beck Disease and the Effect of Nano-Selenium on Their Chondrocytes.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020 Mar; 194(1):96-104.BT
To investigate selenium (Se) concentrations in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD), together with the effect of Se supplement (chondroitin sulfate [CS] nano-Se [SeCS]) on CS structure-modifying sulfotransferases in KBD chondrocyte. Fifty serum samples from each group with aged-matched (40-60 years), normal control (N), RA, OA, and KBD (25 males and females, respectively) were collected to determine Se concentrations. Furthermore, the KBD chondrocytes were divided into two groups following the intervention for 24 h: (a) non-treated KBD group and (b) SeCS-treated KBD group (100 ng/mL SeCS). The ultrastructural changes in chondrocytes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Live/dead staining was used to observe cell viability. The expression of CS-modifying sulfotransferases including carbohydrate sulfotransferase 12, 13, and 15 (CHST-12, CHST-13, and CHST-15, respectively), and uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (UST) were examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis after SeCS intervention. The Se concentrations in serum of KBD, OA, and RA patients were lower than those in control. In OA, RA, and control, Se concentrations were higher in male than in female, while it is opposite in KBD. In the cell experiment, cell survival rate and mitochondrial density were increased in SeCS-treated KBD groups. Expressions of CHST-15, or CHST-12, and CHST-15 on the mRNA or protein level were significantly increased. Expression of UST slightly increased on the mRNA level, but no change was visible on the protein level. Se deficiency in serum of RA, OA, and KBD was observed. SeCS supplemented in KBD chondrocytes improved their survival rate, ameliorated their ultrastructure, and increased the expression of CS structure-modifying sulfotransferases.