Metal bioaccumulation, oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in oysters Crassostrea gasar transplanted to an estuary in southern Brazil.Sci Total Environ. 2019 Oct 01; 685:332-344.ST
The present study assessed the spatial and temporal variations on metal bioaccumulation and biochemical biomarker responses in oysters Crassostrea gasar transplanted to two different sites (S1 and S2) at the Laguna Estuarine System (LES), southern Brazil, over a 45-days period. A multi-biomarker approach was used, including the evaluation of lipid peroxidation (MDA) levels, and antioxidant defense enzymes (CAT, GPx, GR and G6PDH) and phase II biotransformation enzyme (GST) in the gills and digestive gland of oysters in combination with the quantification of Al, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe, Ni and Zn in both tissues. The exposed oysters bioaccumulated metals, especially Al, Cd and Zn in gills and digestive gland, with most prominent biomarker responses in the gills. Results showed that GPx, GR and G6PDH enzymes offered an increased and coordinated response possibly against metal (Zn, Ni, Cd and Cu) contamination in gills. GST was inversely correlated to Cd levels, being its activity significantly lowered over the 45-d exposure periods at S2. On contrary, in digestive gland GST was slightly positively correlated to Cd, revealing a compensatory mechanism between tissues to protect oysters' cells against oxidative damages, since MDA levels also decreased. CAT also appeared to be involved in the cellular protection against oxidative stress, being increased in gills. However, CAT was negatively correlated to Al levels, which might suggest a possible inhibitory effect of this metal in the gills of C. gasar. Differences between tissues were evident by the Integrative Biomarker Responses version 2 (IBRv2) indexes, which showed different pattern between tissues when studying the sites and exposure periods separately. This study provided evidence for the effectiveness of using a multi-biomarker approach in oyster C. gasar to monitor estuarine metal pollution.