Diversity of staphylococcal species in food producing animals in Spain, with detection of PVL-positive MRSA ST8 (USA300).Vet Microbiol. 2019 Jun; 233:5-10.VM
This work aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity, antibiotic-resistance phenotype/genotype and virulence factors in staphylococci of farm-animals. Nasal samples of 117 farm-animals (calve: 72; lamb: 37; goat: 8) were collected from one slaughterhouse in La Rioja/Spain and cultured for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) recovery. Identification was performed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial resistance phenotype/genotype was determined by susceptibility testing and specific PCRs. Molecular typing (spa-typing, multilocus-sequence-typing, agr-typing, SCCmec), and detection of 12 virulence genes and human Immune-evasive-cluster (IEC) genes were performed by PCR/sequencing in S. aureus. Two marker genes of arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) were determined by PCR (USA300-MRSA detection). Staphylococci were identified in 50%, 54% and 21% of goat, lamb and calve samples, respectively. Among the 13 S. aureus isolates recovered, 11 were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested, and two were multidrug-resistant-MRSA [beta-lactams (blaZ, mecA), macrolides [(msr(A)/msr(B)] and fluoroquinolones]. The MSSA harboured either tst or enterotoxin genes, while the MRSA harboured the lukF/lukS-PV genes. Five sequence-types were detected. The two MRSA strains (from lamb and goat) were typed as t5173/ST8/agr-I/SCCmec-IVa/ACME-positive, corresponding to USA300 clone, and were IEC-B-positive. Among the 47 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), six species were identified, predominating S. simulans (n = 25) and S. sciuri (n = 11). Fifty-three percent of CoNS showed resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent (six multidrug-resistant strains), and the following resistance phenotypes/genotypes were detected: streptomycin [27.6%; ant(6)-Ia, str], tetracycline [23.4%; tet(M), tet(L), tet(K)], clindamycin [19.1%; lnu(A), vgaA], erythromycin [10.6%; erm(C), msr(A)/msr(B)], chloramphenicol (8.5%; fexA), tobramycin (6.4%), penicillin-cefoxitin (4.3%; blaZ, mecA), and SXT (2.1%). The detection of the MRSA-USA300 lineage in food animals is worrisome and should be further monitored.