Lipid Characteristics of Camellia Seed Oil.J Oleo Sci. 2019 Jul 01; 68(7):649-658.JO
Camellia oleifera, C. japonica and C. sinensis are three representative crops of the genus Camellia. In this work, we systematically investigated the lipid characteristics of these seed oils collected from different regions. The results indicated significant differences in acid value (AV), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), saponification value (SV) and relative density of the above-mentioned camellia seed oils (p < 0.05). The C. japonica seed oils showed the highest AV (1.7 mg/g), and the C. sinensis seed oils showed the highest PV (17.4 meq/kg). The C. japonica seed oils showed the lowest IV (79.9 g/100 g), SV (192.7 mg/g) and refractive index (1.4633) of all the oils, while the C. sinensis seed oils showed the lowest relative density (0.911 g/cm3). The major fatty acids in the camellia seed oils were palmitic acid (16:0), oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2); the oleic acid in C. oleifera and C. japonica seed oils accounted for more than 80% of the total fatty acids. The oleic acid levels in the C. oleifera and C. japonica oils were higher than those in the C. sinensis seed oils, while the linoleic acid levels in the former were lower than those in the latter one. Differences also exist in the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, although the most abundant TAG molecular species in the camellia seed oils was trioleoylglycerol (OOO). Seven sterol species, squalene and α-tocopherol were detected in the camellia seed oils, however, the contents of tocopherol and unsaponifiable molecules in the C. oleifera and C. japonica seed oils were significantly lower than those in the C. sinensis seed oil. These results demonstrated that the varieties of Camellia affected the seed oil lipid characteristics.