Study of bone remodeling in corticotomy-assisted orthodontic tooth movement in rats.J Cell Biochem 2019; 120(9):15952-15962JC
The goal of this study was to determine the structure change of the alveolar bone and the expression of a group of bone remodeling-related factors. Sixty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Selective alveolar decortication (SAD), tooth movement (TM), and "combined therapy" (SAD+TM) was performed in group I, II, and III, respectively. On days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 42, a Micro-CT scan was performed on the maxillary alveolar bone and tooth. In addition, on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42, some of the rats were killed by cervical dislocation and tissues were harvested. Analysis of scan data revealed a significant decrease in bone density of the alveolar bone at 14 days post-surgery, and increased at 42 days post-surgery to a level higher than that before the surgery. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to explore gene expression profile in three groups (SAD, TM, and SAD+TM), and a large number of differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to determine the expression of bone remodeling-related factors. The expression of osteoblast-related cytokines, including osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin, and osteoclast regulators macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL (activator of nuclear factor KB receptor ligand) were increased in group III, suggesting that there was increased bone synthesis and activation of bone absorption. Moreover, group III had a unique alveolar bone remodeling pattern: RANKL and osteoprotegerin-promoted alveolar remodeling. In conclusion, during the early stage of orthodontic tooth movement, corticotomy can accelerate the movement of teeth, modulate the state of bone metabolism, and activate osteogenesis and osteoclast, which support the theory of regional acceleratory phenomenon.