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Effects of ad libitum consumed, low-fat, high-fiber plant-based diet supplemented with plant-based meal replacements on cardiovascular risk factors.
Food Nutr Res 2019; 63FN

Abstract

Background

Sustainable nutritional strategies to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are highly needed. Inclusion of meal replacements may increase adherence to plant-based diets (PBDs).

Objective

The aim of this study was to test the effects of a transition from a western-type diet to a new nutritional paradigm with a PBD from predominately unrefined whole food sources, eaten ad libitum and including nutrient-enriched plant-based meal replacements twice daily.

Design

This was a single-arm, prospective interventional trial for 10 weeks in 36 participants with extension to 36 weeks in 18 participants. The main endpoint was serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol measured at baseline, after 10 weeks (phase 1), and after 36 weeks (phase 2). Secondary endpoints included total, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).

Results

The mean reduction in LDL-cholesterol was 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.8) mmol/L (-15%, P < 0.001) at the end of phase 1, with no further change by the end of phase 2. Similar reductions were noted for non-HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was reduced by 0.16 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.1-0.2). There was a borderline reduction in fasting glucose (5.2 to 5 mmol/L in phase 1, P = 0.08) and a small significant rise in serum uric acid levels of 15 (95% CI, 1-28) μmol/L, P < 0.05. Median baseline value for IGF-1 concentration was 156 μg/L. Participants with baseline IGF-1 below median had a significant increase in IGF-1 value from baseline 110 ± 31 to 132 ± 39 at the end of phase 1 (mean change of +22 μg/L, 95% CI, 11-33, P = 0.001). Participants with baseline IGF-1 above median had no significant change in IGF-1. Significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and visceral fat were observed.

Conclusions

Supplemented, unrefined PBD eaten ad libitum was effective in improving total and LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and IGF-1 in low baseline IGF-1 subgroup.This trial is registered as NCT02905448 at https://clinicaltrials.gov, registered 19.9.2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02905448.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, 1100 Ljubljana, Slovenia.Barbara Jakše s.p., 1230 Domžale, Slovenia.University Medical Center Ljubljana, Zaloška 2, 1525 Ljubljana, Slovenia.University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, 1100 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31191190

Citation

Jakše, Boštjan, et al. "Effects of Ad Libitum Consumed, Low-fat, High-fiber Plant-based Diet Supplemented With Plant-based Meal Replacements On Cardiovascular Risk Factors." Food & Nutrition Research, vol. 63, 2019.
Jakše B, Jakše B, Pajek J, et al. Effects of ad libitum consumed, low-fat, high-fiber plant-based diet supplemented with plant-based meal replacements on cardiovascular risk factors. Food Nutr Res. 2019;63.
Jakše, B., Jakše, B., Pajek, J., & Pajek, M. (2019). Effects of ad libitum consumed, low-fat, high-fiber plant-based diet supplemented with plant-based meal replacements on cardiovascular risk factors. Food & Nutrition Research, 63, doi:10.29219/fnr.v63.1560.
Jakše B, et al. Effects of Ad Libitum Consumed, Low-fat, High-fiber Plant-based Diet Supplemented With Plant-based Meal Replacements On Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Food Nutr Res. 2019;63 PubMed PMID: 31191190.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of ad libitum consumed, low-fat, high-fiber plant-based diet supplemented with plant-based meal replacements on cardiovascular risk factors. AU - Jakše,Boštjan, AU - Jakše,Barbara, AU - Pajek,Jernej, AU - Pajek,Maja, Y1 - 2019/05/21/ PY - 2018/08/15/received PY - 2019/03/29/revised PY - 2019/04/15/accepted PY - 2019/6/14/entrez PY - 2019/6/14/pubmed PY - 2019/6/14/medline KW - atherosclerosis KW - cholesterol KW - fat KW - nutrition KW - obesity KW - weight reduction JF - Food & nutrition research JO - Food Nutr Res VL - 63 N2 - Background: Sustainable nutritional strategies to reduce risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are highly needed. Inclusion of meal replacements may increase adherence to plant-based diets (PBDs). Objective: The aim of this study was to test the effects of a transition from a western-type diet to a new nutritional paradigm with a PBD from predominately unrefined whole food sources, eaten ad libitum and including nutrient-enriched plant-based meal replacements twice daily. Design: This was a single-arm, prospective interventional trial for 10 weeks in 36 participants with extension to 36 weeks in 18 participants. The main endpoint was serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol measured at baseline, after 10 weeks (phase 1), and after 36 weeks (phase 2). Secondary endpoints included total, non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, uric acid, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Results: The mean reduction in LDL-cholesterol was 0.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.8) mmol/L (-15%, P < 0.001) at the end of phase 1, with no further change by the end of phase 2. Similar reductions were noted for non-HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol was reduced by 0.16 mmol/L (95% CI, 0.1-0.2). There was a borderline reduction in fasting glucose (5.2 to 5 mmol/L in phase 1, P = 0.08) and a small significant rise in serum uric acid levels of 15 (95% CI, 1-28) μmol/L, P < 0.05. Median baseline value for IGF-1 concentration was 156 μg/L. Participants with baseline IGF-1 below median had a significant increase in IGF-1 value from baseline 110 ± 31 to 132 ± 39 at the end of phase 1 (mean change of +22 μg/L, 95% CI, 11-33, P = 0.001). Participants with baseline IGF-1 above median had no significant change in IGF-1. Significant reductions in body weight, body fat, and visceral fat were observed. Conclusions: Supplemented, unrefined PBD eaten ad libitum was effective in improving total and LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, and IGF-1 in low baseline IGF-1 subgroup.This trial is registered as NCT02905448 at https://clinicaltrials.gov, registered 19.9.2016, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02905448. SN - 1654-661X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31191190/Effects_of_ad_libitum_consumed_low_fat_high_fiber_plant_based_diet_supplemented_with_plant_based_meal_replacements_on_cardiovascular_risk_factors_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.29219/fnr.v63.1560 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -