[Spinal navigation for posterior cervical and cervicothoracic instrumentation].Oper Orthop Traumatol 2019; 31(4):263-274OO
Safe placement of posterior cervical or high-thoracic pedicle screws, transarticular screws C1/2, translaminar screws C2 or cervical lateral mass screws under the guidance of spinal navigation.
All posterior cervical and cervicothoracic instrumentation with screws: instabilities and deformities of rheumatoid, traumatic, neoplastic, infectious, iatrogenic or congenital origin; multilevel cervical spinal stenosis with degenerative instability or kyphosis of the affected spinal segment.
There are no absolute contraindications.
Prone position on a gel mattress, rigid head fixation, e.g., with Mayfield tongs; if appropriate, closed reduction under lateral image intensification; midline posterior surgical approach at the level of the segments to be instrumented; if necessary, open reduction; insertion of the cervical/upper thoracic screws under the guidance of spinal navigation; if necessary, posterior decompression; instrumentation longitudinal rods; if a fusion is to be obtained, decortication of the posterior bone elements with a high-speed burr and onlay of cancellous bone or bone substitutes.
In stable instrumentation, no postoperative immobilization with cervical collar is necessary. Drain removal on postoperative day 2-3, suture removal on postoperative day 14, clinical and x‑ray control 3 and 12 months after surgery or in case of clinical or neurological deterioration.
Numerous studies showed that the use of spinal navigation reduces implant malplacement rates significantly. Furthermore, it allows a reduction of the radiation dose for the operation team up to 90%.