[Application of small incision approach in anterior surgery of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis].Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2019; 33(6):698-706ZX
To investigate the value of small incision approach in the anterior surgery of thoracic and lumbar spinal tuberculosis.
A clinical data of 65 patients with thoracic or lumbar spinal tuberculosis treated with posterior-anterior surgery between January 2015 and January 2018 was retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into small incision group (group A, 29 patients) and traditional incision group (group B, 36 patients) according to the length of anterior incision. There was no significant difference in general data such as gender, age, disease duration, segment of lesion, American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA) grading, preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and Cobb angle of spinal kyphosis between 2 groups (P>0.05). The length of anterior incision, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, postoperative hospitalization time, ESR, and CRP were recorded and compared. The VAS score was used to evaluate the pain after operation. The Cobb angles in patients with spinal kyphosis were measured and the loss of angle and correction rate of angle were calculated. The result of bone graft fusion was assessed according to the Bridwell standard.
The length of anterior incision, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and hospitalization time of group A were all significantly less than those of group B (P<0.05). All patients in both groups were followed up 12-29 months (mean, 20 months). There were 4 cases (13.8%) and 14 cases (38.9%) of postoperative complications in groups A and B respectively, showing significant difference (χ 2=5.050, P=0.025). The ESR and CRP in 2 groups all returned to normal at 6 months after operation, and there was no significant difference in ESR and CRP between 2 groups at 3 months, 6 months, and last follow-up (P>0.05). At last follow-up, the neurological function of patient with neurological symptoms was significantly better than that before operation, and there was no significant difference between 2 groups (Z=0.167, P=0.868). The VAS scores of 2 groups at each time point after operation were significantly lower than those before operation (P<0.05); the VAS score in group A was significantly lower than that in group B (t=-2.317, P=0.024) at 1 day after operation, but there was no significant difference between 2 groups (t=-0.862, P=0.392) at last follow-up. Among the patients with kyphosis, the Cobb angle was significantly decreased at 1 day after operation and last follow-up when compared with preoperative angle (P<0.05); but there was no significant difference between 1 day after operation and last follow-up (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in Cobb angle, loss of angle, and correction rate between 2 groups after operation (P>0.05). The bone graft healed well at last follow-up in 2 groups. There was no significant difference in bone graft fusion rate between 2 groups at 6 months after operation, 1 year after operation, and last follow-up (P>0.05). At last follow-up, all patients cured, and no recurrence occurred.
In the anterior surgery of thoracic and lumbar tuberculosis, the application of small incision approach can achieve the similar effectiveness as traditional incision surgery with the advantages of minimally invasive, less complications, and quick recovery.