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Lipid protection by polyphenol-rich apple matrices is modulated by pH and pepsin in in vitro gastric digestion.

Abstract

Lipid oxidation takes place in the gastric tract after the ingestion of a Western diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and red meat (heme iron). The incorporation of oxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) into low-density lipoproteins is further correlated to endothelial dysfunction. Gastric postprandial stress could thus be reduced by antioxidant phytomicronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary lipid oxidation and its inhibition by apple polyphenols under different matrix forms (fresh fruit, puree, extract) under in vitro gastric digestion conditions. A deep insight was given into the two factors pH and pepsin governing the metmyoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation of sunflower oil-in-water emulsions simulating the physical state of dietary lipids. Our results first showed that pepsin accelerated lipid oxidation at pH 5 through the formation of a micro-metmyoglobin form likely displaying a higher accessibility to lipids. Spectroscopic studies further highlighted the formation of a reversible unfolded metmyoglobin form at pH 3 which was shown to be more pro-oxidant in the absence of pepsin. At nutritional levels, the three apple matrices inhibited less efficiently the accumulation of lipid-derived conjugated dienes and 4-HNE at pH 5 when pepsin was present whereas at pH 3 the opposite was true. High initial bioaccessibilities of monomeric phenolic compounds were evidenced for both puree (57-74%) and the phenolic extract (79-96%) compared to fresh apple (1-14%) supporting their greater antioxidant capacity. By contrast, the bioaccessibility of dimer B2 was low for all matrices suggesting non-covalent binding to apple pectins.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    UMR408 SQPOV "Safety and Quality of Plant Products", INRA, University of Avignon, F-84000 Avignon, France. claire.dufour@inra.fr and EA4278 LaPEC "Laboratory of Cardiovascular Pharm-ecology", University of Avignon, F-84000 Avignon, France.

    ,

    UMR408 SQPOV "Safety and Quality of Plant Products", INRA, University of Avignon, F-84000 Avignon, France. claire.dufour@inra.fr.

    ,

    UMR408 SQPOV "Safety and Quality of Plant Products", INRA, University of Avignon, F-84000 Avignon, France. claire.dufour@inra.fr.

    UMR408 SQPOV "Safety and Quality of Plant Products", INRA, University of Avignon, F-84000 Avignon, France. claire.dufour@inra.fr.

    Source

    Food & function 10:7 2019 Jul 17 pg 3942-3954

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    31199415

    Citation

    Boléa, Gaëtan, et al. "Lipid Protection By Polyphenol-rich Apple Matrices Is Modulated By pH and Pepsin in in Vitro Gastric Digestion." Food & Function, vol. 10, no. 7, 2019, pp. 3942-3954.
    Boléa G, Ginies C, Vallier MJ, et al. Lipid protection by polyphenol-rich apple matrices is modulated by pH and pepsin in in vitro gastric digestion. Food Funct. 2019;10(7):3942-3954.
    Boléa, G., Ginies, C., Vallier, M. J., & Dufour, C. (2019). Lipid protection by polyphenol-rich apple matrices is modulated by pH and pepsin in in vitro gastric digestion. Food & Function, 10(7), pp. 3942-3954. doi:10.1039/c9fo00705a.
    Boléa G, et al. Lipid Protection By Polyphenol-rich Apple Matrices Is Modulated By pH and Pepsin in in Vitro Gastric Digestion. Food Funct. 2019 Jul 17;10(7):3942-3954. PubMed PMID: 31199415.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Lipid protection by polyphenol-rich apple matrices is modulated by pH and pepsin in in vitro gastric digestion. AU - Boléa,Gaëtan, AU - Ginies,Christian, AU - Vallier,Marie-José, AU - Dufour,Claire, PY - 2019/6/15/pubmed PY - 2019/6/15/medline PY - 2019/6/15/entrez SP - 3942 EP - 3954 JF - Food & function JO - Food Funct VL - 10 IS - 7 N2 - Lipid oxidation takes place in the gastric tract after the ingestion of a Western diet rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and red meat (heme iron). The incorporation of oxidation products such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) into low-density lipoproteins is further correlated to endothelial dysfunction. Gastric postprandial stress could thus be reduced by antioxidant phytomicronutrients. The aim of this study was to investigate dietary lipid oxidation and its inhibition by apple polyphenols under different matrix forms (fresh fruit, puree, extract) under in vitro gastric digestion conditions. A deep insight was given into the two factors pH and pepsin governing the metmyoglobin-initiated lipid oxidation of sunflower oil-in-water emulsions simulating the physical state of dietary lipids. Our results first showed that pepsin accelerated lipid oxidation at pH 5 through the formation of a micro-metmyoglobin form likely displaying a higher accessibility to lipids. Spectroscopic studies further highlighted the formation of a reversible unfolded metmyoglobin form at pH 3 which was shown to be more pro-oxidant in the absence of pepsin. At nutritional levels, the three apple matrices inhibited less efficiently the accumulation of lipid-derived conjugated dienes and 4-HNE at pH 5 when pepsin was present whereas at pH 3 the opposite was true. High initial bioaccessibilities of monomeric phenolic compounds were evidenced for both puree (57-74%) and the phenolic extract (79-96%) compared to fresh apple (1-14%) supporting their greater antioxidant capacity. By contrast, the bioaccessibility of dimer B2 was low for all matrices suggesting non-covalent binding to apple pectins. SN - 2042-650X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31199415/Lipid_protection_by_polyphenol-rich_apple_matrices_is_modulated_by_pH_and_pepsin_in_in_vitro_gastric_digestion L2 - https://doi.org/10.1039/c9fo00705a DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -