Is Chronic Kidney Disease Progression Influenced by the Type of Renin-Angiotensin-System Blocker Used?Nephron. 2019; 143(2):100-107.N
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce proteinuria and slow renal disease progression more effectively than other therapies in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, differences regarding efficacy and safety between these therapies remain controversial.
Aim of this study was to analyze the different treatment effect of ACEI, ARB, and non-ACEI/ARB in CKD progression. The primary outcome was survival to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and/or death and to ESRD censored by all-cause death, secondary outcomes were proteinuria reduction and hyperkalemia.
We analyzed data from 1,120 patients extracted from the National Renal Healthcare Program cohort, which included 17,238 CKD nondialysis subjects who were successively monitored between -September 1, 2004 and August 31, 2016. Inclusion criteria were at least a 1-year follow-up, 3 clinical visits, and no previous treatment with ACEI or ARB. From the baseline visit onward, patients continued with 3 different treatment schemes: no ACEI/ARB, started on ACEI or ARB, but while avoiding both treatments in combination. Chi2, t test, binary logistic regression, and multivariate regression models (Cox proportional Hazard model and competing risk Fine and Gray model were used for statistical analysis.
Mean age and follow-up were 67.9 (± 15) and 3.8 (± 2) years, respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rate averaged 42.1 ± 23 mL/min/1.73 m2 and 300 (27%) patients were diabetics. Progression to ESRD was significantly worse in the no ACEI/ARB group (hazard ratio [HR] 4.23, 95% CI 1.28-13.92) versus ACEI (reference group; p = 0.01). The analysis by competing-risks' regression showed significantly higher risk of ESRD in the no ACEI/ARB group (HR 3.63, 95% CI 1.34-9.85) versus ACEI (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences between ACEI and ARB groups (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.37-4.66) regarding the risk of progression to ESRD. Survival was similar in all 3 groups (p = 0.051). Statistically significantly more patients experienced reductions in proteinuria/albuminuria in ACEI and ARB groups (together) versus no ACEI/ARB group (p = 0.016, OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.12-2.94). No difference in hyperkalemia frequency was found between them (p = 0.17).
In patients with CKD, treatment with ACEI or ARB had a superior effect than no ACEI or ARB treatment on slowing kidney disease progression and on proteinuria reduction. Efficacy of ACEI and ARB was comparable.