Metabolomic Insights into the Effects of Breast Milk Versus Formula Milk Feeding in Infants.Curr Nutr Rep 2019; 8(3):295-306CN
PURPOSE OF REVIEW
This review summarizes the latest scientific evidence for the presence of metabolomic differences between infants fed breast milk (I-BM) and infants fed formula milk (I-FM).
Across the studies included in this review, a total of 261 metabolites were analyzed, of which 151 metabolites were reported as significantly associated with infant feeding modality (BM versus FM). However, taken as a whole, the relevant literature was notable both for methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, and heterogeneity between the studies. This may be why many associations between infant metabolite profile and feeding modality have not replicated across studies. To our knowledge, this is the first review to integrate the available literature on metabolomic differences between I-BM versus I-FM. This narrative review synthesized the data across studies and identified those metabolites which show the most robust associations with infant feeding modality. Methodological limitations of the current studies are identified, followed by recommendations for how to address these in future studies.