Biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid used to detect root resorption in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment: A systematic review.Orthod Craniofac Res 2019; 22(4):236-247OC
To evaluate whether changes in the concentration of different biomarkers in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) can be used to detect the root resorption process in adult or adolescent patients undergoing treatment with a fixed appliance, in comparison with untreated subjects or treated patients not showing signs of root resorption.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The following databases were analysed in the period between June 2017 and March 2018, without any language and initial date restrictions: PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. A quality assessment instrument (QAI) was developed to establish the risk of bias.
A total of 1127 articles were analysed. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, seven studies qualified for the final review. The QAI tool revealed that five articles were at a moderate risk of bias and two articles were at a low risk of bias.
Dentine phosphoprotein (DPP) may be considered a relatively useful marker for root resorption. Dentinal sialoprotein (DSP) could be a potential biomarker but is not highly helpful at detecting root shortening. Inflammatory cytokines (pro- and anti-resorption), osteopontin (OPN), osteoprotegerin (OPG), RANKL and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are useful biomarkers to explain the biological mechanisms that occur during orthodontic movement but are not specific enough. Further studies are required to clarify the role of GM-CSF as a potential biomarker to distinguish subjects at a risk of severe root resorption in the early phase.