Post-translational inhibition of YAP oncogene expression by 4-hydroxynonenal in bladder cancer cells.Free Radic Biol Med 2019; 141:205-219FR
The transcriptional regulator YAP plays an important role in cancer progression and is negatively controlled by the Hippo pathway. YAP is frequently overexpressed in human cancers, including bladder cancer. Interestingly, YAP expression and activity can be inhibited by pro-oxidant conditions; moreover, YAP itself can also affect the cellular redox status through multiple mechanisms. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), the most intensively studied end product of lipid peroxidation, is a pro-oxidant agent able to deplete GSH and has an anti-tumoral effect by affecting multiple signal pathways, including the down-regulation of oncogene expressions. These observations prompted us to investigate the effect of HNE on YAP expression and activity. We demonstrated that HNE inhibited YAP expression and its target genes in bladder cancer cells through a redox-dependent mechanism. Moreover, the YAP down-regulation was accompanied by an inhibition of proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis, as well as by an accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase of cell cycle and by an induction of apoptosis. We also established the YAP role in inhibiting cell viability and inducing apoptosis in HNE-treated cells by using an expression vector for YAP. Furthermore, we identified a post-translational mechanism for the HNE-induced YAP expression inhibition, involving an increase of YAP phosphorylation and ubiquitination, leading to proteasomal degradation. Our data established that HNE can post-translationally down-regulate YAP through a redox-dependent mechanism and that this modulation can contribute to determining the specific anti-cancer effects of HNE.