Incidence of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors in at-risk men and women in the United Arab Emirates: a 9-year retrospective cohort study.BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2019 06 17; 19(1):148.BC
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide; however, the epidemiology of CVD among nationals from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) remains unknown. This study aimed to estimate the 9-year incidence rate of CVD and determine the risk factors associated with CVD among UAE nationals at high cardiovascular risk. In addition, we investigated whether sex was an important modifier of the risk factors associated with incident CVD in this population.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 977 subjects, including 492 women, aged ≥18 years, who did not have histories of CVD, and who had ≥1 CVD risk factors. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses stratified by sex were used to examine the predictors of major CVD events, namely, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and acute peripheral arterial occlusion.
During a median follow-up period of 8.9 years, the incidence rate of major CVD was 12.7 per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.4-15.4), and among men and women were 16.8 (95% CI 12.9-21.4) and 9.0 (95% CI 6.4-12.4) per 1000 person-years, respectively. Major CVD and MI were significantly more frequent among men than women, and the stroke and acute peripheral arterial occlusion rates were similar for both sexes. Multivariable Cox analyses showed that the systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and serum glycosylated hemoglobin A1c level were strong predictors of major CVD in both sexes. Among women, the total cholesterol (TC)-to-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% CI 1.02-2.04) was an additional independent predictor of major CVD. Age (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.89) and a history of smoking (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.07-3.02) were significant risk factors associated with major CVD in men.
Among high-risk UAE nationals who did not have histories of CVD, the risk of major CVD was associated with high systolic blood pressure, a low estimated glomerular filtration rate, and poorly controlled diabetes. The high TC-to-HDL-C ratios, especially among women, and smoking among men, are modifiable risk factors that should be managed aggressively.