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Evidence for sex differences in morphological abnormalities in type I Chiari malformation.
Neuroradiol J. 2019 Dec; 32(6):458-466.NJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE

Relatively little is known about the influence of individual difference variables on the presentation of macro-level brain morphology in type I Chiari malformation (CMI). The goal of the present study is to examine how case-control differences in Chiari are affected by patient sex.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Patient-provided magnetic resonance images were acquired through the Chiari 1000 database. Twenty-four morphometric measurements were taken using mid-sagittal images of 104 participants (26 male CMI, 26 female CMI, 26 male controls, and 26 female controls) using internally developed and validated custom software, Morphpro. Case-control comparisons were conducted separately by sex using healthy controls matched by age and body mass index. Probability-based t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen's d), and confidence intervals were used to compare case-control differences separately by sex.

RESULTS

Male and female case-control comparisons yielded largely the same trends of CMI-related morphometric abnormalities. Both groups yielded reductions in posterior cranial fossa (PCF) structure heights. However, there was evidence for greater PCF structure height reductions in male CMI patients as measured by Cohen's d.

CONCLUSIONS

Case-control differences indicated strong consistency in the morphometric abnormalities of CMI malformation in males and females. However, despite the higher prevalence rates of CMI in females, the results from the present study suggest that male morphometric abnormalities may be greater in magnitude. These findings also provide insight into the inconsistent findings from previous morphometric studies of CMI and emphasize the importance of controlling for individual differences when conducting case-control comparisons in CMI.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Psychology, Middle Tennessee State University, USA.Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, USA.Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, USA.Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Michigan Health System, USA.Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, USA.Department of Psychology, The University of Akron, USA.Department of Neurological Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, USA.Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins Medical Center, USA.Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, USA. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Akron, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31210559

Citation

Houston, James R., et al. "Evidence for Sex Differences in Morphological Abnormalities in Type I Chiari Malformation." The Neuroradiology Journal, vol. 32, no. 6, 2019, pp. 458-466.
Houston JR, Allen NJ, Eppelheimer MS, et al. Evidence for sex differences in morphological abnormalities in type I Chiari malformation. Neuroradiol J. 2019;32(6):458-466.
Houston, J. R., Allen, N. J., Eppelheimer, M. S., Bapuraj, J. R., Biswas, D., Allen, P. A., Vorster, S. J., Luciano, M. G., & Loth, F. (2019). Evidence for sex differences in morphological abnormalities in type I Chiari malformation. The Neuroradiology Journal, 32(6), 458-466. https://doi.org/10.1177/1971400919857212
Houston JR, et al. Evidence for Sex Differences in Morphological Abnormalities in Type I Chiari Malformation. Neuroradiol J. 2019;32(6):458-466. PubMed PMID: 31210559.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evidence for sex differences in morphological abnormalities in type I Chiari malformation. AU - Houston,James R, AU - Allen,Natalie J, AU - Eppelheimer,Maggie S, AU - Bapuraj,Jayapalli Rajiv, AU - Biswas,Dipankar, AU - Allen,Philip A, AU - Vorster,Sarel J, AU - Luciano,Mark G, AU - Loth,Francis, Y1 - 2019/06/18/ PY - 2019/6/19/pubmed PY - 2020/5/6/medline PY - 2019/6/19/entrez KW - Chiari malformation KW - MRI KW - gender KW - morphometrics KW - neuroimaging SP - 458 EP - 466 JF - The neuroradiology journal JO - Neuroradiol J VL - 32 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Relatively little is known about the influence of individual difference variables on the presentation of macro-level brain morphology in type I Chiari malformation (CMI). The goal of the present study is to examine how case-control differences in Chiari are affected by patient sex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient-provided magnetic resonance images were acquired through the Chiari 1000 database. Twenty-four morphometric measurements were taken using mid-sagittal images of 104 participants (26 male CMI, 26 female CMI, 26 male controls, and 26 female controls) using internally developed and validated custom software, Morphpro. Case-control comparisons were conducted separately by sex using healthy controls matched by age and body mass index. Probability-based t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen's d), and confidence intervals were used to compare case-control differences separately by sex. RESULTS: Male and female case-control comparisons yielded largely the same trends of CMI-related morphometric abnormalities. Both groups yielded reductions in posterior cranial fossa (PCF) structure heights. However, there was evidence for greater PCF structure height reductions in male CMI patients as measured by Cohen's d. CONCLUSIONS: Case-control differences indicated strong consistency in the morphometric abnormalities of CMI malformation in males and females. However, despite the higher prevalence rates of CMI in females, the results from the present study suggest that male morphometric abnormalities may be greater in magnitude. These findings also provide insight into the inconsistent findings from previous morphometric studies of CMI and emphasize the importance of controlling for individual differences when conducting case-control comparisons in CMI. SN - 2385-1996 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31210559/Evidence_for_sex_differences_in_morphological_abnormalities_in_type_I_Chiari_malformation_ L2 - https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1971400919857212?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -