Neuropathology and pathogenesis of extrapyramidal movement disorders: a critical update-I. Hypokinetic-rigid movement disorders.J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2019 08; 126(8):933-995.JN
Extrapyramidal movement disorders include hypokinetic rigid and hyperkinetic or mixed forms, most of them originating from dysfunction of the basal ganglia (BG) and their information circuits. The functional anatomy of the BG, the cortico-BG-thalamocortical, and BG-cerebellar circuit connections are briefly reviewed. Pathophysiologic classification of extrapyramidal movement disorder mechanisms distinguish (1) parkinsonian syndromes, (2) chorea and related syndromes, (3) dystonias, (4) myoclonic syndromes, (5) ballism, (6) tics, and (7) tremor syndromes. Recent genetic and molecular-biologic classifications distinguish (1) synucleinopathies (Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease-dementia, and multiple system atrophy); (2) tauopathies (progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, FTLD-17; Guamian Parkinson-dementia; Pick's disease, and others); (3) polyglutamine disorders (Huntington's disease and related disorders); (4) pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration; (5) Wilson's disease; and (6) other hereditary neurodegenerations without hitherto detected genetic or specific markers. The diversity of phenotypes is related to the deposition of pathologic proteins in distinct cell populations, causing neurodegeneration due to genetic and environmental factors, but there is frequent overlap between various disorders. Their etiopathogenesis is still poorly understood, but is suggested to result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Multiple etiologies and noxious factors (protein mishandling, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, energy failure, and chronic neuroinflammation) are more likely than a single factor. Current clinical consensus criteria have increased the diagnostic accuracy of most neurodegenerative movement disorders, but for their definite diagnosis, histopathological confirmation is required. We present a timely overview of the neuropathology and pathogenesis of the major extrapyramidal movement disorders in two parts, the first one dedicated to hypokinetic-rigid forms and the second to hyperkinetic disorders.