[Neurological disorders secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency: about 29 cases].Pan Afr Med J. 2019; 32:108.PA
Neurological disorders secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency are polymorphic and diverse. There have been very few studies conducted in the Moroccan as well as in the African population. This study aims to describe the clinical, paraclinical, evolutionary features of neurological manifestations in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency within the Department of Neurology at the Moulay Ismail Military Hospital, Meknes over a period of 18 years (1999-2017). The study involved 06 women and 23 men, with an average age of 57 years. The mean time between symptom onset and diagnosis was 3 months. Neurological manifestation was indicative of vitamin B12 deficiency in 100% of cases. The average hemoglobin level was 10 g/dl, the mean corpuscular volume was 115 fl. Medullary megaloblastosis and atrophic gastritis were found in 95% and 90% of cases respectively. Regular electromyography (EMG), electroencephalography (EEG) and visual evoked potentials (VEP) showed subclinical peripheral and optic neuropathies. In 20 cases they were caused by Biermer's anemia. All the patients received parenteral Vitamin B12 with good outcome. These results demonstrate the importance of early diagnosis in patients with a potentially serious neuropsychiatric condition as well as of rapid substitution treatment which is the only therapeutic option to secure a good outcome.