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Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey.
Addiction. 2019 10; 114 Suppl 1:49-60.A

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

It has been proposed that many smokers switch to vaping because their nicotine addiction makes this their only viable route out of smoking. We compared indicators of prior and current cigarette smoking dependence and of relapse in former smokers who were daily users of nicotine vaping products ('vapers') or who were not vaping at the time of survey ('non-vapers').

DESIGN

Cross-sectional survey-based comparison between vaping and non-vaping former smokers, including a weighted logistic regression of vaping status onto predictor variables, adjusting for covariates specified below.

SETTING

United States, Canada, Australia and England.

PARTICIPANTS

A total of 1070 people aged 18+ years from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey who reported having ever been daily smokers but who stopped less than 2 years ago and who were currently vapers or non-vapers.

MEASUREMENTS

Dependent variable was current vaping status. Predictor variables were self-reported: (1) smoking within 5 minutes of waking and usual daily cigarette consumption, both assessed retrospectively; (2) current perceived addiction to smoking, urges to smoke and confidence in staying quit. Covariates: country, sample sources, sex, age group, ethnicity, income, education, current nicotine replacement therapy use and time since quitting.

FINDINGS

Vapers were more likely than non-vapers to report: (1) having smoked within 5 minutes of waking [34.3 versus 15.9%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99, 7.03), χ[2] = 16.92, P < 0.001]; having smoked > 10 cigarettes/day (74.4 versus 47.2%, aOR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.22, 8.68), χ[2] = 18.18, P < 0.001); (2) perceiving themselves to be still very addicted to smoking (41.3 versus 26.2%, aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.58, 5.30, χ[2] = 11.87, P < 0.001) and feeling extremely confident about staying quit (62.1 versus 36.6%, aOR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86, 5.59, χ[2] = 17.36, P < 0.001). Vapers were not more likely to report any urges to smoke than non-vapers (27.7 versus 38.8%, aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.65, χ[2] = 0.21, P = 0.643).

CONCLUSIONS

While former smokers who currently vape nicotine daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence pre- and post-cessation compared with former smokers who are current non-vapers, they report greater confidence in staying quit and similar strength of urges to smoke.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Addictions Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. UK Centre for Tobacco & Alcohol Studies, UK.Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.Addictions Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK. UK Centre for Tobacco & Alcohol Studies, UK.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.Cancer Council Victoria Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

31225672

Citation

McNeill, Ann, et al. "Indicators of Cigarette Smoking Dependence and Relapse in Former Smokers Who Vape Compared With Those Who Do Not: Findings From the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey." Addiction (Abingdon, England), vol. 114 Suppl 1, 2019, pp. 49-60.
McNeill A, Driezen P, Hitchman SC, et al. Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction. 2019;114 Suppl 1:49-60.
McNeill, A., Driezen, P., Hitchman, S. C., Cummings, K. M., Fong, G. T., & Borland, R. (2019). Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 114 Suppl 1, 49-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14722
McNeill A, et al. Indicators of Cigarette Smoking Dependence and Relapse in Former Smokers Who Vape Compared With Those Who Do Not: Findings From the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. Addiction. 2019;114 Suppl 1:49-60. PubMed PMID: 31225672.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Indicators of cigarette smoking dependence and relapse in former smokers who vape compared with those who do not: findings from the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey. AU - McNeill,Ann, AU - Driezen,Pete, AU - Hitchman,Sara C, AU - Cummings,K Michael, AU - Fong,Geoffrey T, AU - Borland,Ron, Y1 - 2019/08/15/ PY - 2019/6/22/pubmed PY - 2020/10/29/medline PY - 2019/6/22/entrez KW - Former smokers KW - nicotine KW - non-vaping KW - relapse prevention KW - vapers KW - vaping SP - 49 EP - 60 JF - Addiction (Abingdon, England) JO - Addiction VL - 114 Suppl 1 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: It has been proposed that many smokers switch to vaping because their nicotine addiction makes this their only viable route out of smoking. We compared indicators of prior and current cigarette smoking dependence and of relapse in former smokers who were daily users of nicotine vaping products ('vapers') or who were not vaping at the time of survey ('non-vapers'). DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey-based comparison between vaping and non-vaping former smokers, including a weighted logistic regression of vaping status onto predictor variables, adjusting for covariates specified below. SETTING: United States, Canada, Australia and England. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1070 people aged 18+ years from the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey who reported having ever been daily smokers but who stopped less than 2 years ago and who were currently vapers or non-vapers. MEASUREMENTS: Dependent variable was current vaping status. Predictor variables were self-reported: (1) smoking within 5 minutes of waking and usual daily cigarette consumption, both assessed retrospectively; (2) current perceived addiction to smoking, urges to smoke and confidence in staying quit. Covariates: country, sample sources, sex, age group, ethnicity, income, education, current nicotine replacement therapy use and time since quitting. FINDINGS: Vapers were more likely than non-vapers to report: (1) having smoked within 5 minutes of waking [34.3 versus 15.9%, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.99, 7.03), χ[2] = 16.92, P < 0.001]; having smoked > 10 cigarettes/day (74.4 versus 47.2%, aOR = 4.39, 95% CI = 2.22, 8.68), χ[2] = 18.18, P < 0.001); (2) perceiving themselves to be still very addicted to smoking (41.3 versus 26.2%, aOR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.58, 5.30, χ[2] = 11.87, P < 0.001) and feeling extremely confident about staying quit (62.1 versus 36.6%, aOR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86, 5.59, χ[2] = 17.36, P < 0.001). Vapers were not more likely to report any urges to smoke than non-vapers (27.7 versus 38.8%, aOR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.65, χ[2] = 0.21, P = 0.643). CONCLUSIONS: While former smokers who currently vape nicotine daily report higher levels of cigarette smoking dependence pre- and post-cessation compared with former smokers who are current non-vapers, they report greater confidence in staying quit and similar strength of urges to smoke. SN - 1360-0443 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/31225672/Indicators_of_cigarette_smoking_dependence_and_relapse_in_former_smokers_who_vape_compared_with_those_who_do_not:_findings_from_the_2016_International_Tobacco_Control_Four_Country_Smoking_and_Vaping_Survey_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -